Amazon A-F Topical Amazon

2 fluid ounces (60 ml)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A powerful formula of 8 rainforest botanicals which are used by the shamans and herbal healers in South America for skin and nail fungus.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon A-F Topical, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide.

Ingredients: A herbal blend of jatobá, Brazilian peppertree, pau d’arco, bellaco caspi, anamu, fedegoso, sangre de grado, and copaiba oil extracted in distilled water and alcohol. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: combine equal parts of jatobá, Brazilian peppertree, pau d’arco, bellaco caspi, anamu, and fedegoso, and make a tincture following the instruction on the Methods of Preparing Herbal Remedies page. To make a small amount... 1 part could be a tablespoon (you'd have 6 tablespoon of the blended herbal formula). Once the tincture is finished, measure it. For every 4 parts of the finished tincture, add one part sangre de grado resin and one part copaiba oil. Mix together and bottle it in a dark glass bottle (it will naturally separate... just shake well before using).

Suggested Use: Shake well and apply directly on the skin several times daily. Allow to dry completely before covering with clothing.

Contraindications: None reported

Drug Interactions: None known.

Other Observations: This extract will stain clothing and other textiles.

Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research.

Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril)
Jatobá contains terpene and phenolic chemicals which are responsible for protecting the tree from fungi and mold in the rainforest. In fact, the jatobá tree is one of the few trees in the rainforest that sports a completely clean trunk bark, without any of the usual mold and fungus found on many other trees in this wet and humid environment. These antifungal terpenes and phenolics have been documented in several studies over the years and the antifungal activity of jatobá is attributed to these chemicals.*
Cavin, A., "Bioactive diterpenes from the fruits of Detarium microcarpum." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(5): 768-73.
Abdel-Kader, M., et al. “Isolation and absolute configuration of ent-Halimane diterpenoids from Hymenaea courbaril from the Suriname rain forest.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(1): 11-5.
Yang, D., et al. “Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis.” Mycopathologia. 1999; 148(2): 79–82.
Hostettmann, K., et al. “Phytochemistry of plants used in traditional medicine.” Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1995.
Rahalison, L., et al. “Screening for antifungal activity of Panamanian plants.” Inst. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 68–76.
Verpoorte, R., et al. “Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 21(3): 315–18.
Arrhenius, S.P., et al. “Inhibitory effects of Hymenaea and Copaifera leaf resins on the leaf fungus, Pestalotia subcuticulari.” Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 1983; 11(4): 361–66.
Giral, F., et al. “Ethnopharmacognostic observation on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part 1.” Q. J. Crude Drug Res. 1979; 167(3/4): 115–30.
Marsaioli, A. J., et al. “Diterpenes in the bark of Hymenaea courbaril.Phytochemistry. 1975; 14: 1882–83.
Pinheiro de Sousa, M., et al. “Molluscicidal activity of plants from Northeast Brazil.” Rev. Bras. Pesq. Med. Biol. 1974; 7(4): 389–94.

Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus molle)
In laboratory tests, essential oil, leaf, and bark extracts of Brazilian peppertree demonstrated potent antimicrobial properties.* It has demonstrated good-to-very strong in vitro antifungal actions against numerous fungi, as well as Candida in other published research.* One research group indicated that the antifungal action of the essential oil was more effective than the antifungal drug Multifungin®.* Research published in 2005 continues to document Brazilian peppertree's antifungal and anticandidal activities.*
Gomes, F., et al. "Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf." J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Nov 28.
Rocha, P., et al. "Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Aguaribay (Schinus molle L.)." Molecules. 2012 Oct 12;17(10):12023-36.
Montanari, R., et al. "Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells." Molecules. 2012 Aug 14;17(8):9728-40
Moura-Costa, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):631-8.
Leite, S., et al. "Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis." Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011 Mar;44(3):245-52
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010 Oct 12;9:30.
Pereira, E., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry." Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(4):401-4.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Pharm Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):388-96.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis" Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010; 9: 30.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 536139.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Sep 21.
El-Massry, K., et al. "Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Jun; 57(12): 5265-70.
Hayouni el, A., et al. "Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat." Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 125(3): 242-51.
Molina-Salinas, G., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Northern Mexico for in vitro antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 23;
de Lima, M. R., et al. “Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 137-47.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563-8.
de Carvalho, M. C. “Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2003; 42(3): 185-91.
de Melo, Jr., E. J., et al. “Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: Microbiological and microscopic analysis.” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(2): 109–16.
Quiroga, E. N., et al. “Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74(1): 89–96.
Camano, R. “Essential oil composition with bactericide activity.” United States patent 5,635,184; June 3, 1997.
Camano, R. “Method for treating bacterial infections.” United States patent 5,512,284; April 30, 1996.
Martinez, M. J., et al. “Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(3): 171–74.
Cuella, M. J., et al. “Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(10): 977–79.
Gundidza, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.” Central African J. Med. 1993; 39(11): 231–34.
Dikshit, A. “Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1986; 51(5): 1085–88.
El-Keltawi, N., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Herba Pol. 1980; 26(4): 245–50.
Ross, S., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Fitoterapia. 1980; 51: 201–5.
Simons, J., et al. “Succulent-type as sources of plant virus inhibitors.” Phytopathology. 1963; 53: 677–83.

Pau d'Arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa)
Antimicrobial properties of many of pau d'arco's active phytochemicals were demonstrated in several laboratory studies, in which they exhibited strong in vitro activity against bacteria, fungi, and yeast (including Candida, Aspergillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Helicobacter pylori).* A water extract of pau d'arco was reported in other in vitro research to have strong activity against 11 fungus and yeast strains.*
Hofling, J., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species." Braz J Biol. 2010 Nov;70(4):1065-8.
Melo e Silva, F., et al. "Evaluation of the antifungal potential of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants." Mycoses. 2009 Nov;52(6):511-7.
Pereira, E. M., et al. "Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis." Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2006 Mar; 5: 5.
Park, B. S., et al. "Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 255-62.
Park, B. S., et al. “Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005 Feb; 23;53(4): 1152-7.
Park, B. S., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec;
Machado, T. B., et al. “In vitro activity of Brazilian medicinal plants, naturally occurring naphthoquinones and their analogues, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.” Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2003; 21(3): 279-84.
Portillo, A., et al. “Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 76(1): 93–8.
Nagata, K., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of novel furanonaphthoquinone analogs.” Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 1998; 42(3): 700–2.
Binutu, O. A., et al. “Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.” Afr. J. Med. Sci. 1994; 23(3): 269–73.
Giuraud, P., et al. “Comparison of antibacterial and antifungal activities of lapachol and b-lapachone.” Planta Med. 1994; 60: 373–74.
Li, C. J., et al. “Three inhibitors of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat-directed gene expression and virus replication.” Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 1993; 90(5): 1839–42.
Anesini, C., et al. “Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119–28.
Lagrota, M., et al. “Antiviral activity of lapachol.” Rev. Microbiol. 1983; 14: 21–6.
Gershon, H., et al. “Fungitoxicity of 1,4-naphthoquinonoes to Candida albicans and Trichophyton menta grophytes.” Can. J. Microbiol. 1975; 21: 1317–21.
Linhares, M. S., et al. “Estudo sobre of efeito de substancias antibioticas obitdas de Streptomyces e vegatais superiores sobre o herpesvirus hominis.” Revista Instituto Antibioticos, Recife 1975; 15: 25–32.

Anamu (Petiveria alliacea)
Anamu's antifungal properties were documented by one research group in 1991, and again by a separate research group in 2001 and 2006.* Its antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.*
Kim, S., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Kubec, R., et al. “The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea.” Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
Benevides, P. J., et al. “Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L.” Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Hoyos, L., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu).” Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Misas, C.A.J., et al. “The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III.” Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 21–27.
Von Szczepanski, C., et al. “Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea.” Arzneim-Forsch 1972; 22: 1975–.
Feng, P., et al. “Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.

Bellaco-Caspi (Himatanthus sucuuba)
Bellaco caspi evidenced a greater antifungal effect than the antifungal drug, nistatin, in research conducted in Brazil in 1998.*
Kuigoua, G., et al. "Minor Secondary Metabolic Products from the Stem Bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. Displaying Antimicrobial Activities. Planta Med. 2009 Nov 20.
Moreira, D., et al. "Actividades antimicrobiologicas dos stratos e fracoes obtido atraves de solventes organicos da casca da Himatanthus sucuuba do vale do Acre." Anais Do XV Seminario De Iniciacao Cientifica PIBIQ-CNPQ, 2006: Universidade Federal Do Acre, Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil.
Souza, W., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of alkaloidal fraction from barks of Himatanthus lancifolius." Fitoterapia. 2004 Dec; 75(7-8): 750-3.
Little, J., et al. "Plumericin; an antimicrobial agent from Plumeria multiflora." Arch. Biochem. 1951; 30(2): 445-52.
Persinos-Perdue, G., et al. " South American plants. III. Isolation of fulvoplumierin from Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae). J. Pharm. Sci. 1978; 67: 1322.
Wood, C. A., et al. "A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2001; 49(11): 1477-1478.
De Silva, J. R., et al. "Triterpenic esters from Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson." Quimica Nova 1998; 21(6): 702-704.
Abdel-Kader, M., et al. "Bioactive iridoids and a new lignan from Allamanda cathartica and Himatanthus fallax from the Suriname rainforest." J. Nat. Prod. 1997; 60(12): 1294-7.
Hamburger, M., et al. "Traditional medicinal plants of Thailand. XVII. Biologically active constituents of Plumeria rubra." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Jul; 33(3): 289-92.
Kardono, L., et al. "Cytotoxic constituents of the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia." J. Nat. Prod. 1990 Nov-Dec; 53(6):1447-55.
Jovel, E., et al. "An ethnobotanical study of the traditional medicine of the Mestizo people of Suni Mirano, Loreto, Peru." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; (53): 149-156.
Bolzani, V., et al. "Search for antifungal and anticancer compounds from native plant species of cerrado and Atlantic Forest." An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 1999; 71(2): 181-7.

Fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis)
Fedegoso has been traditionally used for many types of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections for many years in the tropical countries where it grows.* In vitro laboratory research on fedegoso leaves published over the years has reported active antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, insecticidal, and antimalarial properties.*
Bhagat, M., et al. "Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity." Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug;42(4):234-7.
Li, S., et al. "Cycloartane triterpenoids from Cassia occidentalis." Planta Med. 2012 May;78(8):821-7.
Evans CE, et al. “Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an in vitro study.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Apr; 80(1): 21-4.
Samy, R. P., et al. “Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants used by tribals in Western Ghats of India.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 69(1): 63–71.
Anesini, C., et al. “Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119–28.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263–76.
Hussain, H., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Gaind, K. N., et al. “Antibiotic activity of Cassia occidentalis.” Indian J. Pharmacy 1966; 28(9): 248–50.

Copaiba Oil (Copaifera officinalis)
Copaiba resin is the highest known natural source of caryophyllene, comprising up to 480,000 parts per million. Caryophyllene is a well known plant chemical which has been documented with strong anti-inflammatory effects, antibacterial actions against Staphylococcus & Streptococci and very strong antifungal actions against Candida and nail fungus.*
Pieri, F. et al. "Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans." Braz Dent J. 2012;23(1):36-8.
Santos, R., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Amazonian oils against Paenibacillus species." J Invertebr Pathol. 2012 Mar;109(3):265-8.
Souza, A., et al. "Antimicrobial evaluation of diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii oleoresin against periodontal anaerobic bacteria." Molecules. 2011 Nov 18;16(11):9611-9.
Souz, a., ET AL. "Antimicrobial activity of terpenoids from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. against cariogenic bacteria." Phytother Res. 2011 Feb;25(2):215-20.
Astani, A., et al. "Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2010.
Correia, A.., et al. "Amazonian plant crude extract screening for activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria." Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 2008 Nov-Dec; 12(6): 369-80.
Santos, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Brazilian copaiba oils obtained from different species of the Copaifera genus." Mem .Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2008 May; 103(3):277-81.
Kuete, V., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis (Ixonanthaceae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Oct; 114(1): 54-60.
Cotoras, M., et al. “Characterization of the antifungal activity on Botrytis cinerea of the natural diterpenoids kaurenoic acid and 3beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004 May; 52(10): 2821-6.
Sartori, M. R., et al. “Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).” Pharmazie. 2003; 58(8): 567-9.
Tincusi, B. M., et al. “Antimicrobial terpenoids from the oleoresin of the Peruvian medicinal plant Copaifera paupera." Planta Med. 2002; 68(9): 808–12.
Wilkins, M., et al. “Characterization of the bactericidal activity of the natural diterpene kaurenoic acid.” Planta Med. 2002 68(5): 452–54.
Yang, D., et al. “Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis.” Mycopathologia. 1999; 148(2): 79–82.
Davino, S. C., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of kaurenoic acid derivatives substituted on carbon-15.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1989; 22(9): 1127–29.
Maruzzella, J. C., et al. “Antibacterial activity of essential oil vapors.” J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1960; 49: 692–94.

Sangre de Grado (Croton lechleri)
Sangre de grado has demonstrated antifungal actions in several published studies.*
Rodriguez-Garcia, A., et al. "Development and in vitro evaluation of biopolymers as a delivery system against periodontopathogen microorganisms." Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2010;23(2):158-63.
Gurgel, L. A., et al. “In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 409-12.
Williams, J. E. “Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.” Altern. Med. Rev. 2001; 6(6): 567–79.
Sidwell R., et al. “Influenza virus-inhibitory effects of intraperitoneally and aerosol-administered SP-303, a plant flavonoid.” Chemotherapy. 1994; 40(1): 42–50.
Chen, Z. P., et al. “Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon’s blood.” Planta Med. 1994; 60(6): 541–45.
Rao, G. S., et al. “Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Dragon's blood resin.”J. Nat. Prod. 1982 Sep-Oct; 45(5): 646-8.

*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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Last updated 2-11-2013