Amazon Liver Support
Amazon
LIVER SUPPORT
*

120 capsules (600 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of 8 rainforest botanicals traditionally used in South America for liver cirrhosis, fatty liver and other liver problems.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Liver Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database.

Ingredients: A herbal blend of chanca piedra, pic„o preto, carqueja, erva tost„o, boldo, gerv‚o, fedegoso, and artichoke. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts chanca piedra and one part each of the remaining plants in the list. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 10 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.

Suggested Use: Take 2 grams twice daily. (One gram is about 1/2 teaspoon by volume)

Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.

Drug Interactions: None reported; however, based on animal studies, it may potentiate antihypertensive drugs.

Other Practitioner Observations:
  • Several ingredients in the formula have been documented with liver detoxing effects in animal studies.* This may speed the clearance of some drugs metabolized in the liver (decrease the half-life), thereby reducing the pharmacological effect (and/or side effects) of certain drugs required to be metabolized in the liver.
  • Several plants in this formula have been documented to reduce blood pressure in animal studies.* Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.
  • Gerv‚o contains salicylic acid. Those allergic to aspirin or salicylates may wish to avoid this formula.






Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.


Chanca Piedra (Phyllanthus niruri, amarus)
Chanca piedra, and several of it's active plant chemicals, have been widely documented with beneficial actions for the liver.*
Wong, V., et al. "Treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with Phyllanthus urinaria - A randomized trial." J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Oct 4.
Londhe, J., et al. "Geraniin and amariin, ellagitannins from Phyllanthus amarus, protect liver cells against ethanol induced cytotoxicity." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec;83(8):1562-8.
Amin, Z., et al. "Protective Role of Phyllanthus niruri Extract against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rat Model." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:241583.
Srirama, R., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of Indian Phyllanthus." Pharm Biol. 2012 Aug;50(8):948-53.
Thakur, J., et al. "Enhancing hepatoprotective bioactives of phyllanthus amarus through immobilization by growth promoters and media changes." Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May;73(3):271-5.
Sharma, S., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of the Phyllanthus species on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells." Pharmacogn Mag. 2011 Jul;7(27):229-33.
Surya Narayanan, B., et al. "Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus on fibrotic markers during alcohol and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced toxicity." Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011 Jan;21(1):48-52.
Chirdchupunseree, H., et al. "Protective activity of phyllanthin in ethanol-treated primary culture of rat hepatocytes." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 11.
Krithika, R., et al. "Ameliorative potential of Phyllanthus amarus against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2009 Sep-Oct; 66(5): 579-83.
Guhu, G., et al. "Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435S cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009 Oct 27.
Krithika, R., et al. "Mitigation of carbon tetrachloride-induced damage by Phyllanthus amarus in liver of mice." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2009 Jul-Aug; 66(4): 439-44.
Hau, D., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria extract attenuates acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity: involvement of cytochrome P450 CYP2E1." Phytomedicine. 2009 Aug; 16(8): 751-60.
Krithika, R., et al. "Isolation, characterization and antioxidative effect of phyllanthin against CCl4-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line." Chem. Biol. Interact. 2009 Oct; 181(3): 351-8.
Yadav, N., et al. "Synergistic effect of silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus." Phytomedicine. 2008 Dec; 15(12): 1053-61.
Negi, A., et al. "Recent advances in plant hepatoprotectives: a chemical and biological profile of some important leads." Med. Res. Rev. 2008 Sep; 28(5): 746-72.
Appiah-Opong, R., et al. "Interactions between cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and Ghanaian medicinal plants." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(12): 3598-603.
Manjrekar, A., et al. "Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. treatment on liver, kidney and testes in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats." Indian J. Exp Biol. 2008 Jul; 46(7): 514-20.
Londhe, J., et al. "Antioxidant activity of some polyphenol constituents of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus amarus Linn." Redox. Rep. 2008; 13(5): 199-207.
Adeneye, A., et al. "Protective effect of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus on gentamicin and acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul; 118(2): 318-23.
Faremi, T., et al. "Hepatoprotective potentials of Phyllanthus amarus against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(8): 2658-64.
Rai, V., et al. "Chromium-induced changes in ultramorphology and secondary metabolites of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn. - an hepatoprotective plant." Environ. Monit. Assess. 2008 Dec; 147(1-3): 307-15.
Shen, B., et al. "Phyllanthus urinaria ameliorates the severity of nutritional steatohepatitis both in vitro and in vivo." Hepatology. 2008 Feb; 47(2): 473-83.
Xu, M., et al. "Phenolic antioxidants from the whole plant of Phyllanthus urinaria." Chem. Biodivers. 2007 Sep; 4(9): 2246-52.
Jaleel, C., et al. "NaCl as a physiological modulator of proline metabolism and antioxidant potential in Phyllanthus amarus." C. R. Biol. 2007; 330(11): 806-13.
Sarkar, M., et al. "Hepatocytes are protected by herb Phyllanthus niruri protein isolate against thioacetamide toxicity." Pathophysiology. 2007 Oct; 14(2): 113-20.
Pramyothin, P., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. extract in ethanol treated rats: in vitro and in vivo studies." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Nov; 114(2): 169-73.
Naaz, F., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep; 113(3): 503-9.
Stickel, F., et al. "Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases." Dig. Liver Dis. 2007; 39(4): 293-304.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "Protein isolate from the herb Phyllanthus niruri modulates carbon tetrachloride-induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes." Toxicol. Mech Methods. 2007; 17(1): 41-7.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. Protein isolate from the herb, Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), plays hepatoprotective role against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage via its antioxidant properties." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007; 45(5): 817-26.
Chatterjee, M., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri on nimesulide-induced oxidative stress in vivo." Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 2006 Oct; 43(5): 299-305.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "The protein fraction of Phyllanthus niruri plays a protective role against acetaminophen induced hepatic disorder via its antioxidant properties." Phytother. Res. 2006; 20(7): 595-601.
Lee, C. Y., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus in Taiwan on acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride." Am. J. Chin. Med. 2006; 34(3): 471-82.
Chatterjee, M., et al. "Herbal (Phyllanthus niruri) protein isolate protects liver from nimesulide induced oxidative stress." Pathophysiology. 2006 May; 13(2): 95-102.
Khatoon, S., et al. “Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species.” 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 79-86.
Levy, C., et al. “Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease.” Clin. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2(11): 947-56.
Rajeshkumar, N. V., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus extract administration increases the life span of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1–2): 215–19.
Padma, P., et al. "Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against carbon tetrachloride-induced mitochondrial dysfunction." Life Sci. 1999; 64(25): 2411-17.
Jeena, K. J., et al. “Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on n-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.” Cancer Lett. 1999; 136(1): 11–16.
Thabrew, M. R., et al. “Phytogenic agents in the therapy of liver disease.” Phytother. Res. 1996; 10(6): 461–67.
Prakash, A., et al. “Comparative hepatoprotective activity of three Phyllanthus species, P. urinaria, P. niruri and P.simplex, on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in the rat.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(8): 594–96.
Dhir, H., et al. “Protection afforded by aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus species against cytotoxicity induced by lead and aluminium salts.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(5): 172–76
Sreenivasa, R. Y. “Experimental production of liver damage and its protection with Phyllanthus niruri and Capparis spinosa (both ingredients of LIV52) in white albino rats.” Probe 1985; 24(2): 117–19.
Syamasundar, K. V., et al. "Antihepatotoxic principles of Phyllanthus niruri herbs." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1985; 14(1): 41-4.

Picão Preto (Bidens pilosa)
Picão preto has demonstrated liver-protective, immunomodulator and antioxidant actions in the following published studies.*
Wu, J., et al. "Investigation of the extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. for antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cells." J Nat Med. 2013 Jan;67(1):17-26.
Kviecinski, M., et al. "Brazilian Bidens pilosa Linnť yields fraction containing quercetin-derived flavonoid with free radical scavenger activity and hepatoprotective effects." Libyan J Med. 2011 Jan 18;6.
Adedapo, A., et al. "Comparison of the nutritive value and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa and Chenopodium album." Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 Jan-Feb;68(1):83-92.
Horiuchi, M., et al. "Effects of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Scherff on experimental gastric lesion." J Nat Med. 2010 Oct;64(4):430-5.
Suzigan, M., et al. "An acqueous extract of Bidens pilosa L. protects liver from cholestatic disease: experimental study in young rats." Acta Cir Bras. 2009 Sep-Oct;24(5):347-52.
Yuan, L., et al. "Protective effects of total flavonoids of Bidens pilosa L. (TFB) on animal liver injury and liver fibrosis." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar 28;116(3):539-46.
Chang, C., et al. "Cytopiloyne, a polyacetylenic glucoside, prevents type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice." J Immunol. 2007 Jun 1;178(11):6984-93.
Chang, S., et al. "Flavonoids, centaurein and centaureidin, from Bidens pilosa, stimulate IFN-gamma expression." J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jun 13;112(2):232-6.
Chiang, Y., et al. "Cytopiloyne, a novel polyacetylenic glucoside from Bidens pilosa, functions as a T helper cell modulator." J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 4;110(3):532-8.
Chiang, Y. M., et al. "Cytopiloyne, a novel polyacetylenic glucoside from Bidens pilosa, functions as a T helper cell modulator." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct 19;
Yang, H. L., et al. "Protection from oxidative damage using Bidens pilosa extracts in normal human erythrocytes." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2006 Sep; 44(9): 1513-21.
Abajo, C., et al. “In vitro study of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of aqueous infusion of Bidens pilosa.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Aug; 93(2-3): 319-23.
Chang, S. L., et al. “Polyacetylenic compounds and butanol fraction from Bidens pilosa can modulate the differentiation of helper T cells and prevent autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.” Planta Med. 2004; 70(11):1045-51.
Chiang, Y. M., et al. “Metabolite profiling and chemopreventive bioactivity of plant extracts from Bidens pilosa.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 409-19.
Usami, E., et al. “Assessment of antioxidant activity of natural compound by water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant factor” Yakugaku Zasshi. 2004; 124(11): 847-50.
Chin, H. W., et al. “The hepatoprotective effects of Taiwan folk medicine ‘ham-hong-chho’ in rats.” Am. J. Chin. Med. 1996; 24(3–4): 231–40.

Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides, trimera)
Carqueja (and several of it's flavanoid plant chemicals) have demonstrated liver-protective and liver-detoxification actions as well as anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant, & pain-relieving actions in the following studies.*
Soicke, H., et al. “Characterisation of flavonoids from Baccharis trimera and their antihepatotoxic properties.” Planta Med. 1987; 53(1): 37–9.
de Oliveira, C., et al. "Phenolic enriched extract of Baccharis trimera presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities." Molecules. 2012 Jan 23;17(1):1113-23.
Nogueira, N., et al."In vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluation of extract and fractions from Baccharis trimera with anti-inflammatory activity." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Nov 18;138(2):513-22.
Paul, E., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Baccharis trimera Aqueous Extract on Induced Pleurisy in Rats and Lymphoproliferation In Vitro." Inflammation. 2009 Sep 15.
Abad, M. J., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of four Bolivian Baccharis species (Compositae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb; 103(3): 338-44.
Coelho, M. G., et al. “Anti-arthritic effect and subacute toxicological evaluation of Baccharis genistelloides aqueous extract.” Toxicol. Lett. 2004 1; 154(1-2): 69-80.
Hnatyszyn, O., et al. “Argentinian plant extracts with relaxant effect on the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum of guinea pig.” Phytomedicine. 2003 Nov; 10(8): 669-74.
Torres, L. M., et al. “Diterpene from Baccharis trimera with a relaxant effect on rat vascular smooth muscle.” Phytochemistry. 2000 Nov; 55(6): 617-9.
Gene, R. M., et al. “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Baccharis trimera: Identification of its active constituents.” Planta. Med. 1996; 62(3): 232–5.
Gene, R. M., et al. “Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of three species of the genus Baccharis.” Planta Med. 1992 Dec; 58(6): 565-6.
de las Heras, B., et al. “Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Ecuador.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jun; 61(2): 161-6.

Erva Tostão (Boerhaavia diffusa)
Erva tostão had demonstrated liver protective, kidney protective and diuretic actions in the research shown below.*
Olaleye, M., et al. "Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective property of leaf extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats." Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Aug-Sep;48(8-9):2200-5
Rawat, A. K., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. roots—a popular Indian ethnomedicine." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(1): 61–66.
Chandan, B. K., et al. “Boerhaavia diffusa: a study of its hepatoprotective activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3):299–307.
Pareta, S., et al. "Aqueous extract of Boerhaavia diffusa root ameliorates ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluric oxidative stress and renal injury in rat kidney." Pharm Biol. 2011 Dec;49(12):1224-33.
Yasir, F., et al. "Effect of indigenous plant extracts on calcium oxalate crystallization having a role in urolithiasis." Urol Res. 2011 Oct;39(5):345-50.
Raut, A., et al. "Preliminary study on crystal dissolution activity of Rotula aquatica, Commiphora wightii and Boerhaavia diffusa extracts." Fitoterapia. 2008 Dec;79(7-8):544-7.
Rawat, A. K., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. roots—a popular Indian ethnomedicine." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(1): 61–66.
Devi, M. V., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on the diuretic activity of punarnava tablets." J. Res. Edu. Ind. Med. 1986; 5(1): 11–12.
Mishra, J. P., et al. “Studies on the effect of indigenous drug Boerhaavia diffusa Rom. on kidney regeneration." Indian J. Pharmacy 1980; 12: 59.
Mudgal, V. “Studies on medicinal properties of Convolvulus pluricaulis and Boerhaavia diffusa.” Planta Med. 1975;28: 62.
Gaitonde, B. B., et al. “Diuretic activity of punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa).” Bull. Haffkine Inst. 1974; 2: 24.
Chowdhury, A., et al. “Boerhaavia diffusa: effect on diuresis and some renal enzymes." Ann. Biochem. Exp. Med. 1955; 15: 119–26.
Singh, R. P., et al. “Recent approach in clinical and experimental evaluation of diuretic action of punarnava (B. diffusa) with special reference to nephrotic syndrome." J. Res. Edu. Ind. Med. 1955; 7(1): 29-35.

Boldo (Peumus boldus)
Boldo and one of it's active plant chemicals, boldine, have shown liver protective and liver detoxifying actions as well as antioxidant and other cellular protective actions in the research cited below.*
Kubinova, R., et al. “Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.” Pharmazie. 2001; 56(3): 242–43.
Bannach, R., et al. “Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of boldine on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to isolated hepatocytes.” Cell Biol. Toxicol. 1996 Apr; 12(2): 89-100.
Kringstein, P., et al. “Boldine prevents human liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and inactivation of cytochrome P4502E1.” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1995; 18(3): 559–63.
Cederbaum, A. I., et al. “Inhibition of rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by boldine.” Biochem, Pharmacol. 1992 Nov; 44(9): 1765-72.
Lanhers, M. C., et al. “Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.” Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 110–15.
Jimenez, I., et al. “Biological disposition of boldine: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Phytother. Res. 2000 Jun; 14(4): 254-60.
Jang, Y. Y., et al. “Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” Pharmacol. Res. 2000; 42(4): 361–71.
Lau, Y., et al. "Boldine protects endothelial function in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress through an antioxidant mechanism." Biochem Pharmacol. 2012 Nov 22. doi:pii: S0006-2952(12)00751-4.
Sobarzo-SŠnchez, E., et al. "Applied biological and physicochemical activity of isoquinoline alkaloids: oxoisoaporphine and boldine." Molecules. 2012 Sep 12;17(9):10958-70.
Falť P., et al. "Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and toxicity of Peumus boldus water extracts on HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Aug;50(8):2656-62.
Lau, Y., et al. "The aporphine alkaloid boldine improves endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats." Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012 Jan 1;237(1):93-8.
FernŠndez, J. et al. "Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver." Phytother Res. 2009; 23(7):1024-7.
Yu, B., et al."The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J. Med. Food. 2009 Oct; 12(5): 1074-83.
Konrath, E., et al. "Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of boldine on hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro." Neurotoxicology. 2008 Nov; 29(6): 1136-40.
Hidalgo, M., et al. "Photostability and photoprotection factor of boldine and glaucine." J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2005 Jul; 80(1): 65-9.
O'brien, P., et al. “Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties.” Chem. Biol. Interact. 2006 Jan; 159(1): 1-17.
Milian, L., et al. “Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation inhibited by aporphine and phenanthrene alkaloids semi-synthesized from natural boldine.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(6): 696-9.
Santanam, N., et al. “A novel alkaloid antioxidant, Boldine and synthetic antioxidant, reduced form of RU486, inhibit the oxidation of LDL in-vitro and atherosclerosis in vivo in LDLR(-/-) mice.” Atherosclerosis. 2004 Apr; 173(2):203-10.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., “Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants from Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo").
Free Radic. Res. 2003 Apr; 37(4): 447-52.
Youn, Y. C., et al. “Protective effect of boldine on dopamine-induced membrane permeability transition in brain mitochondria and viability loss in PC12 cells.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 2002 Feb; 63(3): 495-505.
Jimenez, I., et al. “Protective effects of boldine against free radical-induced erythrocyte lysis.” Phytother. Res. 2000; 14(5): 339–43.
Reiniger, I. W., et al. “Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Dec; 68(1-3): 345-8.
Ubeda, A., et al. “Iron-reducing and free-radical-scavenging properties of apomorphine and some related benzylisoquinolines.” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1993 Aug; 15(2): 159-67.
Speisky, H., et al. “Antioxidant properties of the alkaloid boldine in systems undergoing lipid peroxidation and enzyme inactivation.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 1991 Jun; 41(11): 1575-81.

Gervâo (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis)
Gervâo and various chemical found in gervâo, have been documented with liver protective, liver detoxification, kidney protective, antioxidant, and other various cellular protect actions in the published research below.*
Morikawa, T., et al. "Acylated phenylethanoid oligoglycosides with hepatoprotective activity from the desert plant Cistanche tubulosa." Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Mar 1;18(5):1882-90.
Park, J. C., et al. “Effects of methanol extract of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense and its principle, hispidulin-7-O-neohesperidoside on hepatic alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and lipid peroxidation in ethanol-treated rats.” Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(1): 19-24.
Xiong, Q., et al. “Acteoside inhibits apoptosis in D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury.” Life Sci. 1999; 65(4): 421–30.
Xiong, Q., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of phenylethanoids from Cistanche deserticola.” Planta Med. 1998; 64(2): 120–25.
Ferrandiz, M. L., et al. “Hispidulin protection against hepatotoxicity induced by bromobenzene in mice.” Life Sci. 1994; 55(8): PL145–50.
Hayashi, K., et al. “Acteoside, a component of Stachys sieboldii MIQ, may be a promising antinephritic agent (2): Effect of acteoside on leukocyte accumulation in the glomeruli of nephritic rats.” Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 1994 Sep; 66(1): 47-52.
Hayashi, K., et al. “Acetoside, a component of Stachys sieboldii MIQ, may be a promising antinephritic agent: effect of acteoside on crescentic-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats.” Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 1994 Jun; 65(2): 143-51.
Pan, W., et al. "Isolation, purification and structure identification of two phenolic glycosides from the roots of Incarvillea younghusbandii Sprague and their antioxidant activities." Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2011 Apr;46(4):422-7.
Morikawa, T., et al. "Acylated phenylethanoid oligoglycosides with hepatoprotective activity from the desert plant Cistanche tubulosa." Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Mar 1;18(5):1882-90.
Esposito, E., et al. "Protective effect of verbascoside in activated C6 glioma cells: possible molecular mechanisms." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;381(1):93-105.
Koo, K. A., et al. "Acteoside and its aglycones protect primary cultures of rat cortical cells from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity." Life Sci. 2006 Jul 10;79(7):709-16.
Lee, K. Y., et al. "Acteoside of Callicarpa dichotoma attenuates scopolamine-induced memory impairments." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(1): 71-4.
Lin, L. C., et al. "The inhibitory effect of phenylpropanoid glycosides and iridoid glucosides on free radical production and beta2 integrin expression in human leucocytes." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006; 58(1): 129-35.
Galvez, M., et al. "Antioxidant activity of Plantago bellardii All." Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(12): 1074-6.
Dabaghi-Barbosa, P., et al. “Hispidulin: antioxidant properties and effect on mitochondrial energy metabolism.” Free Radic. Res. 2005; 39(12): 1305-15.
Qiusheng, Z., et al. “Effects of verbascoside and luteolin on oxidative damage in brain of heroin treated mice.” Pharmazie. 2005; 60(7): 539-43.
Zhao, C., et al. "In vitro" protection of DNA from Fenton reaction by plant polyphenol verbascoside.”
Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2005 May 25; 1723(1-3): 114-23.
Alvarez, E., et al. “Inhibitory effects of leaf extracts of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Verbenaceae) on the respiratory burst of rat macrophages.” Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(6): 457-62.
Liu, M.J.,et al.“The effects of verbascoside on plasma lipid peroxidation level and erythrocyte membrane fluidity during immobilization in rabbits: a time course study.” Life Sci. 2003 Jul; 73(7): 883-92.
Sheng, G. Q., et al. “Protective effect of verbascoside on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002; 451(2): 119–24.
Daels-Rakotoarison, D. A., et al. “Neurosedative and antioxidant activities of phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra.” Arzneimittelforschung. 2000; 50(1): 16-23.
Sanz, M. J., et al. “Influence of a series of natural flavonoids on free radical generating systems and oxidative stress.” Xenobiotica. 1994; 24(7): 689-99.

Fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis)
Fedegoso has shown liver protective & detoxification actions in the published research shown below.*
Yadav, J., et al. "Cassia occidentalis L.: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile." Fitoterapia. 2010 Jun;81(4):223-30.
Jafri, M. A., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 66(3): 355–61.
Sharma, N., et al. “Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis extract on chemical-induced chromosomal aberrations in mice.” Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1999; 22(4): 643–53.
Saraf, S., et al. “Antiheptatotoxic activity of Cassia occidentalis.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1994; 32(2): 178–83.
Subbarao, V. V., et al. “Changes in serum transaminases due to hepatotoxicity and the role of an indigenous hepatotonic, LIV-52.” Probe 1978; 17(2): 175–78.
Sethi, J. P., et al. “Clinical management of severe acute hepatic failure with special reference to LIV-52 in therapy.” Probe 1978; 17(2): 155–58.
Sama, S., et al. “Efficacy of an indigenous compound preparation (LIV-52) in acute viral hepatitis—A double blind study.” Indian J. Med. Res. 1976; 64: 738.

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
Artichoke has demonstrated a wide range of benefits to the liver in the research cited below.*
Metwally, N., et al. "The protective effects of fish oil and artichoke on hepatocellular carcinoma in rats." Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Dec;15(12):1429-44.
Juzyszyn, Z., et al. "The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria." Phytother Res. 2010 Jun;24 Suppl 2:S123-8.
Huber, R., et al. "Artichoke leave extract for chronic hepatitis C - a pilot study." Phytomedicine. 2009 Sep; 16(9): 801-4.
Tkachenko, E., et al."Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome: equality of pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches." Eksp. Klin. Gastroenterol. 2008; (2): 92-6.
MehmetÁik, G., et al. "Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and oxidative stress." Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2008 Sep; 60(6): 475-80.
Miccadei, S.,et al., "Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells." Nutr. Cancer. 2008; 60(2): 276-83.
Speroni, E., et al. “Efficacy of different Cynara scolymus preparations on liver complaints.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jun; 86(2-3): 203-11.
Betancor-Fernandez, A., et al. “Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2003; 55(7): 981-6.
Gebhardt, R. “Prevention of taurolithate-induced hepatic bile canalicular distortions by HPLC-characterized extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves.” Planta Med. 2002; 68(9): 776–79.
Aktay, G., et al. “Hepatoprotective effects of Turkish folk remedies on experimental liver injury.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1-2): 121-9.
Adzet, T., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of polyphenolic compounds from Cynara scolymus against CCl4 toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.” J. Nat. Prod. 1987; 50(4): 612–17.
Maros, T., et al. “Effects of Cynara scolymus extracts on the regeneration of rat liver. 1.” Arzneimittelforschung 1966; 16(2): 127–29.



*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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