Amazon Prostate Support
Amazon
PROSTATE SUPPORT
*

120 capsules (650 mg each

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of 9 rainforest botanicals traditionally used in South America for prostatitis and BPH.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Prostate Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database.

Ingredients: A proprietary blend of nettle root, jatoba, mutamba, graviola, Brazilian peppertree, vassourinha, cipó cabeludo, pau d'arco, and anamu. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts nettle root, two parts jatoba, and one part each of the remaining plants in the list. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 12 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.

Suggested Use: Take 1.5 to 2 grams 2-3 times daily. (1 gram is approximately 1 teaspoon)

Contraindications: None known.

Drug Interactions: None known.

Other Practitioner Observations:
  • Several plants in this formula have demonstrated antimicrobial activity in laboratory tests. Long term use may lead to die-off of friendly bacteria in the digestive tract. Supplementation with probiotics and digestive enzymes is advisable when this formula is used for longer than 30 days.
  • Cipó cabeludo contains the plant chemical coumarin which has anticoagulant activity. Those on anticoagulant medications, or those with blood disorders such as hemophilia, should be monitored closely for this blood-thinning effect.
  • Several plants in this formula have been documented to reduce blood pressure in animal studies. Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.




Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.

Nettle Root (Urtica dioica)
In more than 20 published studies thus far, nettle root (and nettle combined with other herbs) has demonstrated an improvement of clinical symptoms in BPH and prostatitis. While nettle's benefit for prostatitis is most probably related to its documented anti-inflammatory properties, its effect on BPH is quite different—it works on a hormonal level. In published research, nettle has demonstrated the ability to stop the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (by inhibiting an enzyme required for the conversion), as well as to directly bind to sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) itself—thereby preventing SHBG from binding to other hormones. Other research also reveals that nettles can prevent SHBG that has already bound to a hormone from attaching to the receptor sites on the prostate, as well as to decrease the production of estrogens (estradiol and estrone) by inhibiting an enzyme required for their production.
Azimi, H., et al. "A review of animal and human studies for management of benign prostatic hyperplasia with natural products: perspective of new pharmacological agents." Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2012 Jun;11(3):207-21
Nahata, A., et al. "Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats." Andrologia. 2012 May;44 Suppl 1:396-409.
Popa, G., et al. "[The importance of phytotherapy for benign prostatic syndrome]." Pharm Unserer Zeit. 2008;37(4):322-8.
Lopatkin, N. A., et al. "Combined extract of Sabal palm and nettle in the treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms in double blind, placebo-controlled trial." Urologiia. 2006 Mar-Apr; 12(2): 14-9.
Safarinejad, M. R., "Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study." J. Herb Pharmacother. 2005; 5(4): 1-11.
Popa, G., et al. “Efficacy of a combined Sabal-urtica preparation in the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study.” MMW Fortschr. Med. 2005 Oct; 147 Suppl 3:103-8.
Lopatkin, N., et al. “Long-term efficacy and safety of a combination of sabal and urtica extract for lower urinary tract symptoms--a placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial.” World J. Urol. 2005 Jun; 23(2): 139-46.
Walther, C., et al. "Benign prostatic syndrome. Urinary urgency and micturition frequency reduced with plant preparation." MMW Fortschr. Med. 2005 Oct; 147(40): 52-3.
Popa, G., et al. “Benign prostate syndrome: urinary tract symptoms can be eased with phytotherapy.” MMW Fortschr. Med. 2005 Aug; 147(33-34):42.
Schneider, T., et al. “Stinging nettle root extract (Bazoton-uno) in long term treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter study after 12 months” Urologe A. 2004 Mar;43(3):302-6.
Durak I, et al. “Aqueous extract of Urtica dioica makes significant inhibition on adenosine deaminase activity in prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer.” Cancer Biol. Ther. 2004; 3(9): 855-7.
Carson, C., et al. “The role of dihydrotestosterone in benign prostatic hyperplasia.” Urology. 2003; 61(4 Suppl 1): 2-7.
Melo, E. A., et al. “Evaluating the efficiency of a combination of Pygeum africanum and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) extracts in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.” Int. Braz. J. Urol. 2002 Sep-Oct; 28(5): 418-25.
Koch, E. “Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.” Planta Med. 2001; 67: 489-500.
Sokeland, J. “Combined sabal and urtica extract compared with finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: analysis of prostate volume and therapeutic outcome.” B. J. U. Int. 2000; 86(4): 439-42.
Schottner, M., et al. “Lignans from the roots of Urtica dioica and their metabolites bind to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).” Planta Med. 1997; 63(6): 529-32.
Lichius, J. J., et al. “The inhibiting effects of Urtica dioica root extracts on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in the mouse.” Planta Med. 1997; 63(4): 307-10.
Hryb, D. J., et al. “The effect of extracts of the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the interaction of SHBG with its receptor on human prostatic membranes.” Planta Med. 1995; 61(1): 31-2.
Koch E. and A. Biber. "Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto and urtica extracts for benign prostatic hyperplasia." Urologe 1994; 34(2): 90-95.
Krzeski, T., et al. “Combined extracts of Urtica dioica and Pygeum africanum in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: double-blind comparison of two doses.” Clin. Ther. 1993; 15(6): 1011-20.

Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril)
The overuse of antibiotics treating chronic prostatitis can kill off friendly bacteria that keeps candida in check. Many alternative practitioners think this can delay recovery. Jatoba, and several of its active chemicals, have been documented to be active against, candida, fungi, and molds.
Cavin, A., "Bioactive diterpenes from the fruits of Detarium microcarpum." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(5): 768-73.
Abdel-Kader, M., et al. “Isolation and absolute configuration of ent-Halimane diterpenoids from Hymenaea courbaril from the Suriname rain forest.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(1): 11-5.
Yang, D., et al. “Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis.” Mycopathologia. 1999; 148(2): 79–82.
Hostettmann, K., et al. “Phytochemistry of plants used in traditional medicine.” Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1995.
Rahalison, L., et al. “Screening for antifungal activity of Panamanian plants.” Inst. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 68–76.
Verpoorte, R., et al. “Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 21(3): 315–18.
Arrhenius, S.P., et al. “Inhibitory effects of Hymenaea and Copaifera leaf resins on the leaf fungus, Pestalotia subcuticulari.” Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 1983; 11(4): 361–66.
Giral, F., et al. “Ethnopharmacognostic observation on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part 1.” Q. J. Crude Drug Res. 1979; 167(3/4): 115–30.
Marsaioli, A. J., et al. “Diterpenes in the bark of Hymenaea courbaril.Phytochemistry. 1975; 14: 1882–83.
Pinheiro de Sousa, M., et al. “Molluscicidal activity of plants from Northeast Brazil.” Rev. Bras. Pesq. Med. Biol. 1974; 7(4): 389–94.

Mutamba (Guazuma ulmifolia)
Mutamba contains a chemical called kaurenoic acid which has been documented with antibacterial and antifungal properties in many studies over the years.
Jacobo-Salcedo Mdel, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Dec;6(12):1925-8.
Kaneria, M., et al. "Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, India." Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 Jul;71(4):406-12.
Felipe, A. M., et al. "Antiviral effect of Guazuma ulmifolia and Stryphnodendron adstringens on Poliovirus and Bovine Herpesvirus." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(6): 1092-5.
Camporese, A., et al. “Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jul; 87(1): 103-7.
Navarro, M. C., et al. “Antibacterial, antiprotozoal and antioxidant activity of five plants used in Izabal for infectious diseases.” Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(4): 325-9.
Caceres, A., et al. “Anti-gonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 48(2): 85–88.
Hattori, M., et al. “Inhibitory effects of various Ayurvedic and Panamania medicinal plants on the infection of Herpes simplex virus-1 in vitro and in vivo.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(4): 270–76.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 3. Confirmation of activity against enterobacteria of 16 plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 38(1): 31–38.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 2: Evaluation of activity of 16 plants against gram-positive bacteria.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(1): 77–82.
Heinrich, M., et al. “Parasitological and microbiological evaluation of Mixe Indian medicinal plants.” (Mexico) J. Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 36(1): 81–85.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 30(1): 55–73.
Caceres, A., et al. “Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 20(3): 223–37.

Graviola (Annona muricata)
Graviola has also been documented with broad spectrum antimicrobial actions in laboratory tests, although it is much better known for its antitumor acetogenin chemicals.
Feng, L., et al. "Specific inhibitions of annonaceous acetogenins on class II 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae." Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Jun 1;19(11):3512-9.
Viera, G., et al. "Antibacterial effect (in vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria." Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2010 May-Jun;52(3):129-32
Takahashi, J.A., et al. “Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian Annonaceae plants.” Nat. Prod. Res. 2006; 20(1): 21-6
Betancur-Galvis, L., et al. “Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1999; 94(4): 531-35.
Antoun, M. D., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Puerto Rico for in vitro cytotoxic and anti-HIV activities." Pharmaceutical Biol. 1999; 37(4): 277-280.
Padma, P., et al. “Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 61(1): 81–3.
Sundarrao, K., et al. “Preliminary screening of antibacterial and antitumor activities of Papua New Guinean native medicinal plants.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 3–6.
Misas, C. A. J., et al. “Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. IV.” Rev. Cubana Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 29–35.

Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus molle)
In laboratory tests, the essential oil (as well as leaf and bark extracts) of Brazilian peppertree has demonstrated potent antimicrobial properties. Brazilian peppertree has displayed good-to-very strong in vitro antifungal actions against numerous fungi, as well as Candida. One research group indicated that the antifungal action of the essential oil was more effective than the antifungal drug Multifungin.™ The essential oil and leaves have demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activity against numerous bacterial strains. In 1996, a U.S. patent was awarded for an essential oil preparation of Brazilian peppertree as a topical bactericidal medicine used against Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus for humans and animals, and as an ear, nose, and/or throat preparation against bacteria. Another patent was awarded in 1997 for a similar preparation used as a topical antibacterial wound cleanser. In much earlier in vitro tests, a leaf extract of Brazilian peppertree demonstrated antiviral actions against several plant viruses.
Gomes, F., et al. "Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf." J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Nov 28.
Rocha, P., et al. "Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Aguaribay (Schinus molle L.)." Molecules. 2012 Oct 12;17(10):12023-36.
Montanari, R., et al. "Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells." Molecules. 2012 Aug 14;17(8):9728-40
Moura-Costa, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):631-8.
Leite, S., et al. "Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis." Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011 Mar;44(3):245-52
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010 Oct 12;9:30.
Pereira, E., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry." Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(4):401-4.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Pharm Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):388-96.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis" Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010; 9: 30.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 536139.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Sep 21.
El-Massry, K., et al. "Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Jun; 57(12): 5265-70.
Hayouni el, A., et al. "Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat." Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 125(3): 242-51.
Molina-Salinas, G., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Northern Mexico for in vitro antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 23;
de Lima, M. R., et al. “Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 137-47.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563-8.
de Carvalho, M. C. “Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2003; 42(3): 185-91.
de Melo, Jr., E. J., et al. “Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: Microbiological and microscopic analysis.” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(2): 109–16.
Quiroga, E. N., et al. “Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74(1):89–96
Camano, R. “Essential oil composition with bactericide activity.” United States patent 5,635,184; June 3, 1997.
Camano, R. “Method for treating bacterial infections.” United States patent 5,512,284; April 30, 1996.
Martinez, M. J., et al. “Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(3): 171–74.
Cuella, M. J., et al. “Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(10): 977–79.
Gundidza, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.” Central African J. Med. 1993; 39(11): 231–34.
Dikshit, A. “Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1986; 51(5): 1085–88.
El-Keltawi, N., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Herba Pol. 1980; 26(4): 245–50.
Ross, S., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Fitoterapia. 1980; 51: 201–5.
Simons, J., et al. “Succulent-type as sources of plant virus inhibitors.” Phytopathology. 1963; 53: 677–83.

Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis)
Vassourinha has shown in various studies to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antitumorous, anti-bacterial, anticancerous, and antifungal actions.
Wu, W., et al. "Benzoxazinoids from Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) with antiproliferative activity against the DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line." Phytochemistry. 2012 Nov;83:110-5.
Hayashi, T., et al. "Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2011;131(9):1259-69.
Tsai, J., wt al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and betulinic acid." Am J Chin Med. 2011;39(5):943-56.
Bangou, M., et al. "Evaluation of enzymes inhibition activities of medicinal plant from Burkina Faso." Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Jan 15;14(2):99-105.
Coulibaly, A., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L." J Med Food. 2011 Dec;14(12):1576-82.
Phan, M. G., et al. "Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Apr; 54(4): 546-9.
Ahmed, M., et al. “Analgesic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory principle from Scoparia dulcis.” Pharmazie. 2001; 56(8): 657–60.
Freire, S. M., et al. “Sympathomimetic effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and catecholamines isolated from plant extracts.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1996; 48(6): 624-8.
Freire, S., et al. “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Scoparia dulcis L. extracts and glutinol in rodents.” Phytother. Res. 1993; 7: 408–14.
Freire, S., et al. “Analgesic activity of a triterpene isolated from Scoparia dulcis (vassourinha).” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1991; 86 (Suppl. II): 149–51.
Ahmed, M. “Diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis.” Phytochemistry. 1990; 29(9): 3035–37.
Dhawan, B. N., et al. “Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1977; 15: 208-219.

Cipó Cabeludo (Mikania hirsutissima)
Cipó cabeludo is traditionally used in Brazilian herbal medicine systems for prostate problems. One of the plant's active chemicals, kaurenoic acid, has demonstracted antimicrobial actions.
de Andrade, B., et al. "Evaluation of ent-kaurenoic acid derivatives for their anticariogenic activity." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Jun;6(6):777-80.
Urzúa, A., et al. "A structure-activity study of antibacterial diterpenoids." Molecules. 2008 Apr; 13(4): 882-91.
Ohkoshi, E., et al. “ent-Kaurenoic acids from Mikania hirsutissima (Compositae).” Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr; 65(7): 885-90.
Wilkins, M., et al. “Characterization of the bactericidal activity of the natural diterpene kaurenoic acid.” Planta Med. 2002; 68(5): 452–54.
Davino, S. C., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of kaurenoic acid derivatives substituted on carbon-15.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1989; 22(9): 1127–29.
de Souza, C. P., et al. “Chemoprophylaxis of schistosomiasis: molluscacidal activity of natural products—assays with adult snails and oviposition.” An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 1984; 56(3): 333–38.

Pau d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa)
Pau d'arco has demonstrated broad spectrum actions against a number of disease-causing microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and yeast. It is also reported with antitumor and anticancer properties. Most reccently researcher have reported that it has anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving actions.
Lee, M., et al. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo, the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae." Mol Med Report. 2012 Oct;6(4):791-6
Suo, M., et al. "Anti-inflammatory constituents from Tabebuia avellanedae." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec;83(8):1484-8.
Byeon, S., et al. "In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taheebo, a water extract from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Sep 2;119(1):145-52.
Lee, J. H., et al. “Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and telomerase activity by beta-lapachone in human prostate carcinoma cells.” Pharmacol. Res. 2005; 51(6): 553-60.
Choi, Y. H., et al. “Suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by beta-Lapachone via down-regulation of PRB phosphorylation and induction of Cdk Inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1).” J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2003 Mar; 36(2): 223-9.
Hofling, J., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species." Braz J Biol. 2010 Nov;70(4):1065-8.
Melo e Silva, F., et al. "Evaluation of the antifungal potential of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants." Mycoses. 2009 Nov;52(6):511-7.
Pereira, E. M., et al. "Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis." Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2006 Mar; 5: 5.
Park, B. S., et al. "Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 255-62.
Park, B. S., et al. “Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005 Feb; 23;53(4): 1152-7.
Park, B. S., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec;
Machado, T. B., et al. “In vitro activity of Brazilian medicinal plants, naturally occurring naphthoquinones and their analogues, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.” Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2003; 21(3): 279-84.

Anamu (Petiveria alliacea)
Anamu has demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against numerous strains of bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, fungi, and yeast in laboratory research over the years.
Kim, S., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Kubec, R., et al. “The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea.” Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 2002; 48(3): 144-47.
Benevides, P. J., et al. “Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L.” Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Hoyos, L., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu).” Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Misas, C.A.J., et al. “The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III.” Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 21–27.
Von Szczepanski, C., et al. “Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea.” Arzneim-Forsch 1972; 22: 1975–.
Feng, P., et al. “Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.



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