Amazon Urinary Support
Amazon
URINARY SUPPORT
*

120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of 7 rainforest plants traditionally used in South America for urinary tract infections.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Urinary Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database.

Ingredients: A proprietary blend of chanca piedra, anamu, jatoba, Brazilian peppertree, pau d'arco, erva tostão, and guaco. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts chanca peidra, two parts anamu, jatoba, Brazilian peppertree and pau d'arco and one part each of erva tostão and guaco. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 13 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.

Suggested Use: Take 1.5 to 2 grams 3 times daily. (One gram is approximately 1/2 teaspoon by volume)

Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.

Drug Interactions: Based on animals studies, it may potentiate anticoagulants and antihypertensive drugs.

Other Practitioner Observations:
  • Several plants in this formula have been documented to reduce blood pressure in animal studies. Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.
  • Several ingredients in the formula have demonstrated antimicrobial activities in laboratory studies. Adding probiotics to the diet may be beneficial when this formula is used for longer than 30 days.




Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.

Chanca Piedra (Phyllanthus niruri, amarus)
Chanca piedra has demonstrated diuretic, antilithic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, hypotensive, antispasmodic, antiviral, antibacterial, and antimutagenic activities in laboratory research over the years. In human studies, researchers reported that chanca piedra promoted the elimination of stones and produced a significant increase in urine output as well as sodium and creatine excretion. In addition, chanca piedra demonstrated in vitro antibacterial actions against numerous bacteria as well as in vivo and in vitro antiviral and antimalarial properties. A 2011 study reports that chanca peidra has antibacterial actions against multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of urinary tract pathogens.
Narayanan, A., et al. "Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India." Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep;2(3):235-43.
Boeira, V., et al. "Effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus niruri and its isolated compounds on cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mouse." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;384(3):265-75.
Woottisin, S., et al. "Effects of Orthosiphon grandiflorus, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Phyllanthus amarus extracts on risk factors for urinary calcium oxalate stones in rats." J Urol. 2011 Jan;185(1):323-8.
Eweka, A., et al. "Effects of oral administration of Phyllanthus amarus leaf extract on the kidneys of adult wistar rats: a histological study." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(3):307-11.
Boim, M., et al. "Phyllanthus niruri as a promising alternative treatment for nephrolithiasis." Int Braz J Urol. 2010 Nov-Dec;36(6):657-64;
Adjene, J., et al. "Histological effects of chronic administration of Phyllanthus amarus on the kidney of adult Wistar rat." N Am J Med Sci. 2010 Apr;2(4):193-5.
Murugaiyah, V., et al. "Mechanisms of antihyperuricemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri and its lignan constituents." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jul; 124(2): 233-9.
Schuler, T., et al. "Medical expulsive therapy as an adjunct to improve shockwave lithotripsy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis." J. Endourol. 2009; 23(3): 387-93.
Amin, Z., et al. "Assessment of in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and immune activation potentials of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus niruri." J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Jul;92(9):1874-7
Ranilla, L, et al. "Antimicrobial activity of an Amazon medicinal plant (Chancapiedra) (Phyllanthus niruri L.) against Helicobacter pylori and lactic acid bacteria." Phytother Res. 2012 Jun;26(6):791-9.
Narayanan, A., et al. "Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India." Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep;2(3):235-43.
Kieley, S., et al. "Ayurvedic medicine and renal calculi." J. Endourol. 2008; 22(8): 1613-6.
Wright, C., et al. "Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Oct; 114(1) :1-31.
Murugaiyah V, et al. "Antihyperuricemic lignans from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri." Planta Med. 2006 Nov; 72(14): 1262-7.
Micali, S., et al. "Can Phyllanthus niruri affect the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones? A randomized, prospective, long-term study." J. Urol. 2006 Sep; 176(3): 1020-2.
Barros, M. E., et al. "Effect of extract of Phyllanthus niruri on crystal deposition in experimental urolithiasis." Urol. Res. 2006 Dec; 34(6): 351-7.
Nishiura, J. L., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients.” Urol. Res. 2004 Oct; 32(5): 362-6.
Barros, M. E., et al. “Effects of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus niruri on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro.” Urol. Res. 2003; 30(6): 374-9.
Freitas, A. M., et al. “The effect of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization and other factors associated with renal stone formation.” B. J. U. Int. 2002; 89(9): 829–34.
Campos, A. H., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri inhibits calcium oxalate endocytosis by renal tubular cells: its role in urolithiasis.” Nephron. 1999; 81(4): 393–97.

Anamu (Petiveria alliacea)
Many clinical reports and studies document that anamu shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against numerous strains of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeast. In a 2002 study, anamu inhibited the replication of the bovine diarrhea virus; this is a test model for hepatitis C virus. A Cuban research group documented anamu's antimicrobial properties in vitro against numerous pathogens, including E. coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Shigella and, interestingly enough, their crude water extracts performed better than any of the alcohol extracts. A German group documented good activity against several bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several strains of fungi, and Candida. Anamu's antifungal properties were documented by one research group in 1991, and again by a separate research group in 2001. Its antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.
Kim, S., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Kubec, R., et al. “The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea.” Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 2002; 48(3): 144-47.
Benevides, P. J., et al. “Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L.” Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Hoyos, L., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu).” Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Misas, C.A.J., et al. “The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III.” Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 21–27.
Von Szczepanski, C., et al. “Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea.” Arzneim-Forsch 1972; 22: 1975–.
Feng, P., et al. “Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.

Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril)
Chemical analysis of jatoba shows that it is rich in biologically active compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, and oligosaccharides. The bark contains copalic acid, delta-cadinene, caryo-phyllene and alpha-humulene which have shown to exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal actions in laboratory studies. These antifungal terpenes and phenolics, which also occur in other medicinal plants, have been documented in several studies over the years and the antifungal activity of jatoba is attributed to these chemicals.
Cavin, A., "Bioactive diterpenes from the fruits of Detarium microcarpum." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(5): 768-73.
Abdel-Kader, M., et al. “Isolation and absolute configuration of ent-Halimane diterpenoids from Hymenaea courbaril from the Suriname rain forest.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(1): 11-5.
Yang, D., et al. “Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis.” Mycopathologia. 1999; 148(2): 79–82.
Hostettmann, K., et al. “Phytochemistry of plants used in traditional medicine.” Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1995.
Rahalison, L., et al. “Screening for antifungal activity of Panamanian plants.” Inst. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 68–76.
Verpoorte, R., et al. “Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 21(3): 315–18.
Arrhenius, S.P., et al. “Inhibitory effects of Hymenaea and Copaifera leaf resins on the leaf fungus, Pestalotia subcuticulari.” Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 1983; 11(4): 361–66.
Giral, F., et al. “Ethnopharmacognostic observation on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part 1.” Q. J. Crude Drug Res. 1979; 167(3/4): 115–30.
Marsaioli, A. J., et al. “Diterpenes in the bark of Hymenaea courbaril.Phytochemistry. 1975; 14: 1882–83.
Pinheiro de Sousa, M., et al. “Molluscicidal activity of plants from Northeast Brazil.” Rev. Bras. Pesq. Med. Biol. 1974; 7(4): 389–94.

Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus molle)
In laboratory tests, the essential oil (as well as leaf and bark extracts) of Brazilian peppertree has demonstrated potent antimicrobial properties. Brazilian peppertree has displayed good-to-very strong in vitro antifungal actions against numerous fungi, as well as Candida. One research group indicated that the antifungal action of the essential oil was more effective than the antifungal drug Multifungin.™ The essential oil and leaves have demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activity against numerous bacterial strains. In 1996, a U.S. patent was awarded for an essential oil preparation of Brazilian peppertree as a topical bactericidal medicine used against Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus for humans and animals, and as an ear, nose, and/or throat preparation against bacteria. Another patent was awarded in 1997 for a similar preparation used as a topical antibacterial wound cleanser. In much earlier in vitro tests, a leaf extract of Brazilian peppertree demonstrated antiviral actions against several plant viruses.
Gomes, F., et al. "Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf." J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Nov 28.
Rocha, P., et al. "Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Aguaribay (Schinus molle L.)." Molecules. 2012 Oct 12;17(10):12023-36.
Montanari, R., et al. "Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells." Molecules. 2012 Aug 14;17(8):9728-40
Moura-Costa, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):631-8.
Leite, S., et al. "Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis." Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011 Mar;44(3):245-52
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010 Oct 12;9:30.
Pereira, E., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry." Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(4):401-4.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Pharm Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):388-96.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis" Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010; 9: 30.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 536139.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Sep 21.
El-Massry, K., et al. "Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Jun; 57(12): 5265-70.
Hayouni el, A., et al. "Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat." Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 125(3): 242-51.
Molina-Salinas, G., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Northern Mexico for in vitro antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 23;
de Lima, M. R., et al. “Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 137-47.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563-8.
de Carvalho, M. C. “Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2003; 42(3): 185-91.
de Melo, Jr., E. J., et al. “Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: Microbiological and microscopic analysis.” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(2): 109–16.
Quiroga, E. N., et al. “Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74(1): 89–96.
Camano, R. “Essential oil composition with bactericide activity.” United States patent 5,635,184; June 3, 1997.
Camano, R. “Method for treating bacterial infections.” United States patent 5,512,284; April 30, 1996.
Martinez, M. J., et al. “Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(3): 171–74.
Cuella, M. J., et al. “Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(10): 977–79.
Gundidza, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.” Central African J. Med. 1993; 39(11): 231–34.
Dikshit, A. “Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1986; 51(5): 1085–88.
El-Keltawi, N., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Herba Pol. 1980; 26(4): 245–50.
Ross, S., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Fitoterapia. 1980; 51: 201–5.
Simons, J., et al. “Succulent-type as sources of plant virus inhibitors.” Phytopathology. 1963; 53: 677–83.

Pau d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa)
Pau d'arco contains a plant chemical named lapachol which has documented antimalarial, antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, pesticidal, schistosomicidal, termiticidal, and viricidal actions. Another chemical in the bark, beta-lapachone, has been demonstrated in laboratory studies to have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral actions. Antimicrobial properties of many of pau d'arco's other active phytochemicals were demonstrated in several laboratory studies, in which they exhibited strong in vitro activity against bacteria, fungi, and yeast (including Candida, Aspergillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Helicobacter pylori, Brucella, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and dysentery). In addition to its isolated chemicals, a hot water extract of pau d'arco demonstrated antibacterial actions against Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, and Brucella. In other in vitro clinical research an extract of the bark was shown to have strong activity against 11 fungal and yeast strains. Pau d'arco and its chemicals also have demonstrated in vitro antiviral properties against various viruses, including Herpes I and II, influenza, polio virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus.
Hofling, J., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species." Braz J Biol. 2010 Nov;70(4):1065-8.
Melo e Silva, F., et al. "Evaluation of the antifungal potential of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants." Mycoses. 2009 Nov;52(6):511-7.
Pereira, E. M., et al. "Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis." Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2006 Mar; 5: 5.
Park, B. S., et al. "Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 255-62.
Park, B. S., et al. “Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005 Feb; 23;53(4): 1152-7.
Park, B. S., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec;
Machado, T. B., et al. “In vitro activity of Brazilian medicinal plants, naturally occurring naphthoquinones and their analogues, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.” Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2003; 21(3): 279-84.
Portillo, A., et al. “Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 76(1): 93–8.
Nagata, K., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of novel furanonaphthoquinone analogs.” Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 1998; 42(3): 700–2.
Binutu, O. A., et al. “Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.” Afr. J. Med. Sci. 1994; 23(3): 269–73.
Giuraud, P., et al. “Comparison of antibacterial and antifungal activities of lapachol and b-lapachone.” Planta Med. 1994; 60: 373–74.
Li, C. J., et al. “Three inhibitors of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat-directed gene expression and virus replication.” Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 1993; 90(5): 1839–42.
Anesini, C., et al. “Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119–28.
Lagrota, M., et al. “Antiviral activity of lapachol.” Rev. Microbiol. 1983; 14: 21–6.
Gershon, H., et al. “Fungitoxicity of 1,4-naphthoquinonoes to Candida albicans and Trichophyton menta grophytes.” Can. J. Microbiol. 1975; 21: 1317–21.
Linhares, M. S., et al. “Estudo sobre of efeito de substancias antibioticas obitdas de Streptomyces e vegatais superiores sobre o herpesvirus hominis.” Revista Instituto Antibioticos, Recife 1975; 15: 25–32.

Erva Tostâo (Boerhaavia diffusa)
Erva tostão has long been used in traditional medicine systems as a diuretic for many types of kidney and urinary disorders. This action has been studied and validated by scientists in several studies. Researchers showed that low dosages (10–300 mg per kg of body weight) produced strong diuretic effects, while higher dosages (more than 300 mg/kg) produced the opposite effect—reducing urine output. Later research verified these diuretic and antidiuretic properties, as well as the beneficial kidney and renal protective effects of erva tostão in animals and humans. In 2011 researchers documented erva tostão's kidney protective action and it's ability to reduce stone formation.
Pareta, S., et al. "Aqueous extract of Boerhaavia diffusa root ameliorates ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluric oxidative stress and renal injury in rat kidney." Pharm Biol. 2011 Dec;49(12):1224-33.
Yasir, F., et al. "Effect of indigenous plant extracts on calcium oxalate crystallization having a role in urolithiasis." Urol Res. 2011 Oct;39(5):345-50.
Raut, A., et al. "Preliminary study on crystal dissolution activity of Rotula aquatica, Commiphora wightii and Boerhaavia diffusa extracts." Fitoterapia. 2008 Dec;79(7-8):544-7.
Rawat, A. K., et al. “Hepatoprotective activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. roots—a popular Indian ethnomedicine." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(1): 61–66.
Devi, M. V., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on the diuretic activity of punarnava tablets." J. Res. Edu. Ind. Med. 1986; 5(1): 11–12.
Mishra, J. P., et al. “Studies on the effect of indigenous drug Boerhaavia diffusa Rom. on kidney regeneration." Indian J. Pharmacy 1980; 12: 59.
Mudgal, V. “Studies on medicinal properties of Convolvulus pluricaulis and Boerhaavia diffusa.” Planta Med. 1975;28: 62.
Gaitonde, B. B., et al. “Diuretic activity of punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa).” Bull. Haffkine Inst. 1974; 2: 24.
Chowdhury, A., et al. “Boerhaavia diffusa: effect on diuresis and some renal enzymes." Ann. Biochem. Exp. Med. 1955; 15: 119–26.
Singh, R. P., et al. “Recent approach in clinical and experimental evaluation of diuretic action of punarnava (B. diffusa) with special reference to nephrotic syndrome." J. Res. Edu. Ind. Med. 1955; 7(1): 29-35.

Guaco (Mikania guaco)
Guaco, and several of its active plant chemicals, have been documented with in vitro antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antiyeast actions in laboratory studies.
Ushimaru, R., et al. "In vitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs." Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(16):1553-7.
de Andrade, B., et al. "Evaluation of ent-kaurenoic acid derivatives for their anticariogenic activity." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Jun;6(6):777-80.
Laurella, L., et al. "In vitro evaluation of antiprotozoal and antiviral activities of extracts from Argentinean Mikania species." Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:121253.
Benatti, B., et al. "Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats." J Appl Oral Sci. 2012 May-Jun;20(3):340-6.
Facy, P., et al. "The antibacterial activities of mikanolide and its derivatives." West Indian Med J. 2010 Jun;59(3):249-52.
Botsaris, A. "Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal." J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007 May 1;3:18.
dos Santos, S. C., et al. "LC characterisation of guaco medicinal extracts, Mikania laevigata and M. glomerata, and their effects on allergic pneumonitis." Planta Med. 2006 Jun; 72(8): 679-84.
Betoni, J. E., et al. "Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun; 101(4): 387-90.
Yatsuda, R., et al. “Effects of Mikania genus plants on growth and cell adherence of Mutans streptococci.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 183-9.
Duarte, M. C., et al. “Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 305.
Holetz, F. B. “Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2002 Oct; 97(7): 1027-31
Rungeler, P., et al. “Germacranolides from Mikania guaco." Phytochemistry 2001; 56(5): 475-89.
Muelas-Serrano, S., “In vitro screening of American plant extracts on Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 71(1-2): 101-7.
Rojas de Arias A., et al. “Mutagenicity, insecticidal and trypanocidal activity of some Paraguayan Asteraceae.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 45(1): 35-41.
Davino, S. C., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of kaurenoic acid derivatives substituted on carbon-15.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1989; 22(9): 1127-9.



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by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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