Amazon A-P: a combination of plants traditionally used for parasites

120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of 10 rainforest botanicals traditionally used in South America for parasites.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon A-P, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide.

Ingredients: A proprietary blend of amargo, simarouba, boldo, fedegoso, carqueja, quinine, erva tostão, epazote, anamu, and graviola. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use 3 parts amargo, 3 parts simarouba and one part each boldo, fedegoso, carqueja, quinine, erva tostão, epazote, anamu, and graviola. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 14 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce, or one cup, or one pound or any other measurement you'd like. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.
Suggested Use: Take 1-2 grams by weight (or about 1/2 to 1 teaspoon by volume) every 4-6 hours as needed.
Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
Drug Interactions: None reported.
Other Practitioner Observations:

  • Several plants in this formula have been documented with hypotensive properties in animal studies. Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored more closely for this possible effect.
  • This formula is more effective if taken consecutively for a minimum of 40 days.
  • Do not exceed 9 capsules daily. Exceeding recommended amount may cause stomach cramps.

Third-Party Published Research*

This specific rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.

Amargo (Quassia amara)
Laboratory studies on amargo and its chemicals reports the bark possesses antiparasitic, anti-amebic, and antimalarial actions.*
Mac-Mary, S., et al. "Assessment of the efficacy and safety of a new treatment for head lice." ISRN Dermatol. 2012;Oct 2012:460467
Wright, C. W., et al. “Use of microdilution to assess in vitro antiamoebic activities of Brucea javanica fruits, Simarouba amara stem, and a number of quassinoids.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1988; 32(11): 1725-9
Jensen, O. “Pediculosis capitis treated with Quassia tincture.” Acta. Derm. Venereol. 1978; 58(6): 557–59.
Jensen, O. “Treatment of head lice with Quassia tincture.” Ugeskr. Laeger. 1979; 141(4): 225–26.
Bertani, S., et al. "New findings on Simalikalactone D, an antimalarial compound from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae)." Exp Parasitol. 2012 Apr;130(4):341-7. Epub 2012 Feb 21.
Rasoanaivo, P., et al. "Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions." Malar J. 2011; 10(Suppl 1): S4. Published online 2011 March 15.
Deharo, E., et al. "Analysis of additivity and synergism in the anti-plasmodial effect of purified compounds from plant extracts" Malar J. 2011; 10(Suppl 1): S5.
Mishra, K., et al. "Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro interaction of quassin and neo-quassin with artesunate, a hemisuccinate derivative of artemisinin." Exp Parasitol. 2010 Apr;124(4):421-7.
Mishra, K., et al. "Plasmodium falciparum: In vitro interaction of quassin and neo-quassin with artesunate, a hemisuccinate derivative of artemisinin." Exp. Parasitol. 2009 Dec 29.
Cachet, N., et al. "Antimalarial activity of simalikalactone E, a new quassinoid from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae)." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2009 Oct; 53(10): 4393-8.
Houel, E., et al. "Quassinoid constituents of Quassia amara L. leaf herbal tea. Impact on its antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Oct; 126(1): 114-8.
Bertani, S., et al. "Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) leaf tea: Effect of the growing stage and desiccation status on the antimalarial activity of a traditional preparation." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 20; 111(1):40-2.
Botsaris, A. "Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal." J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine. 2007; 3: 18.
Bertani, S., et al. "Simalikalactone D is responsible for the antimalarial properties of an amazonian traditional remedy made with Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 3;108(1):155-7.
Vigneron, M., et al. “Antimalarial remedies in French Guiana: a knowledge attitudes and practices study.” J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr; 98(3): 351-60.
Bertani, S., et al. “Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr; 98(1-2): 45-54.
Ajaiyeoba, E. O., et al. “In vivo antimalarial activities of Quassia amara and Quassia undulata plant extracts in mice.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(3): 321–25.
O’Neill, M. J., et al. “Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs: in vitro antimalarial activities of some quassinoids.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1986; 30(1): 101–4.
Trager, W., et al. “Antimalarial activity of quassinoids against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1981; 30(3): 531–37.

Simarouba (Simarouba amara)
The main active group of chemicals in simarouba are called quassinoids which are well known to scientists. The antiprotozoal and antimalarial properties of these chemicals have been documented for many years.* Several of the quassinoids found in simarouba, such as ailanthinone, glaucarubinone, and holacanthone, are considered the plant's main constituents and are the ones documented to be antiprotozal, anti-amebic, and antimalarial.*
Muganza, D., et al. "In vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity of 33 ethonopharmacologically selected medicinal plants from Democratic Republic of Congo." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 May 7;141(1):301-8.
Garcia, M., et al. "Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis." ISRN Pharmacol. 2012;2012:104540.
Francois, G., et al. ”Antimalarial and cytotoxic potential of four quassinoids from Hannoa chlorantha and Hannoa klaineana, and their structure-activity relationships.” Int. J. Parasitol. 1998; 28(4): 635-40.
Franssen, F. F., et al. “In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1997; 41(7): 1500–3.
Wright, C. W., et al. “Quassinoids exhibit greater selectivity against Plasmodium falciparum than against Entamoeba histoyltica, Giardia intestinalis or Toxoplasma gondii in vitro." J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 1993; 40(3): 244–46.
Kirby, G. C., et al. “In vitro studies on the mode of action of quassinoids with activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.Biochem. Pharmacol. 1989; 38(24): 4367–74.
O’Neill, M. J., et al. “Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs, Part 6. Activities of Simarouba amara fruits." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 22(2): 183–90.
O’Neill, M. J., et al. “The activity of Simarouba amara against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1987; Suppl. 39: 80.
Monjour, I., et al. “Therapeutic trials of experimental murine malaria with the quassinoid, glaucarubinone.” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ill. 1987; 304(6): 129–32.
Trager, W., et al. “Antimalarial activity of quassinoids against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro." Am. J. Trp. Med. Hyg. 1981; 30(3): 531–37.
Duriez, R., et al. “Glaucarubin in the treatment of amebiasis." Presse Med. 1962; 70: 1291.
Spencer, C. F., et al. “Survey of plants for antimalarial activity.” Lloydia 1947; 10: 145–74.
Cuckler, A. C., et al. “Efficacy and toxicity of simaroubidin in experimental amoebiasis.” Fed. Proc. 1944; 8: 284.
Shepheard, S., et al. "Persistent carriers of Entameba histolytica." Lancet 1918: 501.

Boldo (Peumus boldus)
Boldo (Peumus boldus) Boldo leaves contains a phytochemical called asaridole (which is also found in epazote). This plant chemical has been documented to possess antiparasitic, antimalarial, and vermifuge/anthelmintic (worm-expelling) properties.*
Mollataghi, A., et al. "Anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-a-glucosidase, anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities of chemical constituents of Beilschmiedia species." Fitoterapia. 2012 Mar;83(2):298-302.
Monzote, L., et al. "Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Feb;6(2):281-6.
van Krimpen, M., et al. "Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs." Vet Parasitol. 2010 Mar 25;168(3-4):269-77.
van Krimpen, M., et al. "Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs." Vet Parasitol. 2010 Mar 25;168(3-4):269-77.
Torres, M., et al. "Larvicidal and nematicidal activities of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus." Chem Biodivers. 2008 Dec;5(12):2724-8
Morello, A., et al. “Trypanocidal effect of boldine and related alkaloids upon several strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Endocrinol. 1994; 107(3): 367-71.
Johnson, M. A., et al. “Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1984 Nov; 235(1): 254-66

Fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis)
Fedegoso has also been used for many types of parasitic infections for many years in the tropical countries where it grows.* In vitro research on fedegoso over the years has reported antiparasitic, insecticidal, and antimalarial properties.*
Panneerselvam, C., et al. "Adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal properties of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)." Parasitol Res. 2012 Nov 29.
Kumar, S., et al. "Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)." Front Physiol. 2012;3:104.
Kundu, S., et al. "In vitro screening for cestocidal activity of three species of Cassia plants against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona." J Helminthol. 2012 Mar 20:1-6.
Equale, T., et al. "In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of five medicinal plants against egg-hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):108-13.
Ibrahim, M., et al. "Senna occidentalis leaf extract possesses antitrypanosomal activity and ameliorates the trypanosome-induced anemia and organ damage." Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 May;2(3):175-80.
Tona, L., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul; 93(1): 27-32.
Tona, L., et al. “In-vivo antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis, Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthus niruri.” Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2001; 95(1): 47–57.
Gasquet, M., et al. “Evaluation in vitro and in vivo of a traditional antimalarial, ‘Malarial 5.’” Fitoterapia 1993; 64(5): 423.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., et al. “A screening method for natural products on triatomine bugs.” Phytother. Res. 1989; 6(2): 68–73.

Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides, trimera)
Several novel plant chemicals called clerodane diterpenoids have been identified in carqueja and, in 1994, scientists showed that these chemicals had maximum effects against worms.* This could possibly explain carqueja's long history of use as an agent to expel intestinal worms.*
de Oliveira, R., et al. "Schistosoma mansoni: in vitro schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Baccharis trimera (less) DC." Exp Parasitol. 2012 Oct;132(2):135-43
Sosa, M. E., et al. “Insect antifeedant activity of clerodane diterpenoids.” J. Nat. Prod. 1994; 57(9): 1262–
Herz, W., et al. “New ent-clerodane-type diterpenoids from Baccharis trimera.” J. Org. Chem. 1977 Nov 25; (24): 42.
de Oliveira, C., et al. "Phenolic enriched extract of Baccharis trimera presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities." Molecules. 2012 Jan 23;17(1):1113-23.
Samy, R., et al. "Therapeutic Potential of Plants as Anti-microbials for Drug Discovery." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 September; 7(3): 283–294
Morales, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of three Baccharis species used in the traditional medicine of Northern Chile." Molecules. 2008; 13(4): 790-4.

Quinine (Cinchona succirubra)
In European herbal medicine quinine bark is considered antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antimalarial, a bitter tonic, and a fever-reducer.* Quinine bark has long been documented with antiparasitic and antimalarial actions in laboratory studies.*
Wilcox, M. "Improved traditional phytomedicines in current use for the clinical treatment of malaria." Planta Med. 2011 Apr;77(6):662-71.
Kamgno, J., et al. "A controlled trial to assess the effect of quinine, chloroquine, amodiaquine, and artesunate on Loa loa microfilaremia." Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Mar;82(3):379-85.
Correa, J., et al. "Interference with hemozoin formation represents an important mechanism of schistosomicidal action of antimalarial quinoline methanols." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009 Jul 14;3(7):e477.
Bertani, S., et al. "Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr; 98(1-2): 45-54.
Pukrittayakamee, S., et al. "Quinine pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in uncomplicated falciparum malaria." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003; 47(11): 3458-63.
Warhurst, D. C., et al. “The relationship of physico-chemical properties and structure to the differential antiplasmodial activity of the cinchona alkaloids. Malar. J. 2003 Sep 01; 2(1):26.
Pussard, E., et al. "Quinine distribution in mice with Plasmodium berghei malaria." Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2003 Jan-Mar; 28(1): 11-20.
Nakajima, Y. "Antiprotozoal drugs." Nippon Rinsho. 2003 Feb; 61 Suppl 2: 774-9.
Vieira, J. L., et al. "Drug monitoring of quinine in men with nonsevere falciparum malaria: study in the Amazon region of Brazil." Ther. Drug Monit. 2001 Dec; 23(6): 612-5.
Tagboto, S., et al. "Antiparasitic properties of medicinal plants and other naturally occurring products." Adv. Parasitol. 2001; 50: 199-295.
Aviado, D. M., et al. "Antimalarial and antiarrhythmic activity of plant extracts." Medicina Experimentalis—International Journal of Experimental Medicine 1969; 19(20), 79–94.

Erva Tostão (Boerhaavia diffusa)
Laboratory studies document that erva tostão has anti-amebic actions in animal studies and in vitro studies.*
Hilou, A., et al. "In vivo antimalarial activities of extracts from Amaranthus spinosus L. and Boerhaavia erecta L. in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan; 103(2): 236-40.
Sohni, Y., et al. “The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 45 1: 43–52.
Sohni, Y. R., et al. “Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and in immunomodulation studies.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Nov; 54(2-3): 119–24.
Vijayalakshimi, K., et al. “Nematicidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (koffoid and white) chitwood.” Indian J. Entomol. 1979; 4(4): 326–331.
Borrelli F, et al. “Isolation of new rotenoids from Boerhaavia diffusa and evaluation of their effect on intestinal motility.” Planta Med. 2005; 71(10): 928-32.

Epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides)
In a 1996 study, epazote was given to 72 children and adults with intestinal parasitic infections.* On average, the study reported an antiparasitic efficacy in 56% of cases. With respect to the tested parasites, epazote was reported to be 100% effective against the common intestinal parasites, Ancilostoma and Trichuris, and, 50% effective against Ascaris (round worm).* In a more recent study in 2001, thirty children with intestinal roundworms were treated with epazote. Disappearance of the ascaris eggs occurred in 86.7%, while the parasitic burden decreased in 59.5%.* In addition, this study also reported that epazote was 100% effective in eliminating the common human tapeworm (Hymenolepsis nana).*
Borges, A., et al. "Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil." Exp Parasitol. 2012 Oct;132(2):123-8.
Nibret, E., et al. "Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants." Z Naturforsch C. 2011 Nov-Dec;66(11-12):541-6.
Kamel, E., et al. "Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban." Parasitol Int. 2011 Dec;60(4):388-92.
Monzote, L., et al. "Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Feb;6(2):281-6.
Reis, M., et al. "Toxocara canis: potential activity of natural products against second-stage larvae in vitro and in vivo." Exp Parasitol. 2010 Oct;126(2):191-7.
Monzote, L., et al. "Effect of oral treatment with the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides against cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, caused by Leishmania amazonensis." Forsch Komplementmed. 2009 Oct;16(5):334-8.
Patricio, F., et al. "Efficacy of the intralesional treatment with Chenopodium ambrosioides in the murine infection by Leishmania amazonensis." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 17;115(2):313-9
Monzote, L., et al. "Activity of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides grown in Cuba against Leishmania amazonensis." Chemotherapy. 2006; 52(3): 130-6.
Chiasson, H., et al. “Acaricidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.” J. Econ. Entomol. 2004 Aug; 97(4): 1373-7.
Lopez de Guimaraes, D., et al. “Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz.” Rev. Gastroenterol 2001; 21(3): 212-9.
Giove Nakazawa, R. A. “Traditional medicine in the treatment of enteroparasitosis.” Rev. Gastroenterol.1996; 16(3): 197-202.
Kliks, M. M., et al. “Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: Ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.” Soc. Sci. Med. 1985; 21(8): 879-86.
Quinlan, M. B., et al. “Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 80(1): 75-83.
Kiuchi, F., et al. “Monoterpene hydroperoxides with trypanocidal activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides.J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(4): 509-12.

Anamu (Petiveria alliacea)
Anamu’s antimicrobial activity was demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.*
Rosado-Aguilar, J., et al. "Acaricidal activity of extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: ixodidae)." Vet Parasitol. 2010 Mar 25;168(3-4):299-303.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195–202.
Berger I., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Kim, S., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.

Graviola (Annona muricata)
Graviola contains chemicals called Annonaceous acetogenins which have been documented and patented as antiparasitic and insecticidal agents.*
Grzybowski, A., et al. "Synergistic larvicidal effect and morphological alterations induced by ethanolic extracts of Annona muricata and Piper nigrum against the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti." Pest Manag Sci. 2012 Sep 19. doi: 10.1002/ps.3409. [Epub ahead of print]
Vila-Nova N., et al. "Leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of compounds from two Annonacea species cultivated in Northeastern Brazil." Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011 Oct;44(5):567-71.
Broglio-Micheletti S., et al. "[Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in laboratory]." Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2009 Oct-Dec;18(4):44-8.
Osorio, E., et al. "Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities in vitro of Colombian Annonaceae." J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 22;111(3):630-5.
Luna, J. S., et al. “Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.” Nat. Prod. Res. 2006; 20(3): 253-7.
Jaramillo, M. C., et al. “Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp.” Fitoterapia. 2000; 71(2): 183–6.
Alali, F. Q., et al. “Annonaceous acetogenins as natural pesticides; potent toxicity against insecticide-susceptible and resistant German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).” J. Econ. Entomol. 1998; 91(3): 641-9.
Antoun, M. D., et al. "Screening of the flora of Puerto Rico for potential antimalarial bioactives.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(4): 255–58.
Heinrich, M., et al. “Parasitological and microbiological evaluation of Mixe Indian medicinal plants (Mexico).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 36(1): 81–5.
Bories, C., et al. “Antiparasitic activity of Annona muricata and Annona cherimolia seeds.” Planta Med. 1991; 57(5): 434–36.
Gbeassor, M., et al. “In vitro antimalarial activity of six medicinal plants.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(3): 115–17.
Tattersfield, F., et al. “The insecticidal properties of certain species of Annona and an Indian strain of Mundulea sericea (Supli).” Ann. Appl. Biol. 1940; 27: 262–73.

*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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Last updated 12-30-2012