Amazon Pancreas Support

120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of 6 rainforest botanicals traditionally used in South America for diabetes.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Pancreas Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database.

Ingredients: A proprietary blend of pedra hume caŠ, pata de vaca, bitter melon, chanca piedra, stevia, and neem. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts pedra hume caŠ and pata de vaca, two parts bitter melon and chanca peidra, and one part stevia and neem. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 12 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.

Suggested Use: Take 1.5 to 2 grams twice daily. (1 gram is approximately 1/2 teaspoon by volume)

  • Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
  • This formula contains plants which have demonstrated hypoglycemic actions in animals and/or humans. Diabetics who wish to this formula need to be monitored carefully as medications may need adjustments.
  • Those with hypoglycemia should not take this formula.
Drug Interactions: May enhance the effect of antidiabetic medications and insulin. May enhance the effect of hypotensive, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic medications.

Other Practitioner Observations: Several plants in this formula have been documented to reduce blood pressure in animal studies. Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.

Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.

Pedra Hume caá (Myrcia salicifolia, multiflora)
Pedra hume caŠ (called "vegetable insulin" in Brazil) has been documented with hypoglycemic activity since 1929. Two clinical studies published in the 1990s again demonstrated its hypoglycemic activity and confirmed its traditional use for diabetes. In a 1990 double-blind placebo clinical study with normal and Type II diabetic patients, pedra hume caŠ (3 g powdered leaf daily) demonstrated the ability to lower plasma insulin levels in the diabetic group. In a 1993 study, 250 mg/kg of a leaf extract demonstrated the ability to reduce appetite and thirst, and to reduce urine volume, urinary excretion of glucose and urea in diabetic rats. The extract also inhibited the intestinal absorption of glucose. This study concluded that "aqueous extracts of Myrcia have a beneficial effect on the diabetic state, mainly by improving metabolic parameters of glucose homeostasis." In a 1998 study pedra huma caŠ demonstrated potent inhibitory activities on aldose reductase and alphaglucosidase.
Ferreira, E., et al. "The 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone isolated from Myrcia multiflora has antiobesity and mixed hypolipidemic effects with the reduction of lipid intestinal absorption." Planta Med. 2011 Sep;77(14):1569-74.
 Zucchi, O. L., et al. “Characterization of hypoglycemiant plants by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.” Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2005; 103(3): 277-90.
Matsuda, H., et al. “Structural requirements of flavonoids and related compounds for aldose reductase inhibitory activity.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo). 2002; 50(6):788–95.
Matsuda, H. “Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. V. Aldose reductase inhibitors from Myrcia multiflora DC. (2): Structures of myrciacitrins III, IV, and V.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2002; 50(3): 429-31.
Yoshikawa, M., et al. “Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. II. Aldose reductase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Brazilian natural medicine, the leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC (myrtaceae): structures of myrciacitrins I and II and myrciaphenones A and B.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1998; 46(1): 113–19.
Pepato, M. T., et al. “Assessment of the antidiabetic activity of Myrcia uniflora extracts in streptozotocin diabetic rats." Diabetes Res. 1993; 22(2): 49–57.
Russo, E. M., et al. “Clinical trial of Myrcia uniflora and Bauhinia forficata leaf extracts in normal and diabetic patients." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1990; 23(1): 11–20.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., et al. “Preliminary pharmacological studies on Eugenia uniflora leaves: xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 21(2): 183–86.
Chaudhry, P. S., et al. “Inhibition of human lens aldose reductase by flavonoids, sulindac and indomethacin.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 1983; 32(13): 1995–98.
Grune, U., et al. “Sobre o principio antidiabetico da pedra-hume-caá, Myrcia multiflora (Lam)." Thesis 1979; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Brune, U., et al. “Myrcia spaerocarpa, D.C., planta diabetica.” V Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil, Sao Paulo-SP, Brazil, 1978; 74 (September 4–6).
Mendes dos Reis Arruda, L., et al. “Efeito hipoglicemiante induzido pelo extracto das raizes de Myrcia citrifolia (pedra-hume-caa), esudo famacologico preliminar." V Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil, Sao Paulo-SP, Brazil, 1978; 74 (September 4–6).
Varma, S. D., et al. “Flavonoids as inhibitors of lens aldose reductase.” Science 1975; 188(4194): 1215–16.
Coutinho, A. B. Tese de Catedra. Faculdade de Medicina de Recife. Recife, Brazil, 1938.
Martins de Toledo, O. Tese de Doutoramento. Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1929.

Pata de Vaca (Bauhinia forficata)
Pata de vaca has been demonstrating hypoglycemic and antidiabetic actions in various animal and human studies since the 1930's. In 2004, a research group reported that pata de vaca again lowered blood sugar in rats and also reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats stating, "These results suggest the validity of the clinical use of B. forficata in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus type II."
Ferreres, F., et al. "Bauhinia forficata Link authenticity using flavonoids profile: Relation with their biological properties." Food Chem. 2012 Sep 15;134(2):894-904.
Curcio, S., et al. "Hypoglycemic effects of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata on the salivary glands of diabetic mice." Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jul;25(3):493-9.
Trojan-Rodrigues, M., et al. "Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jan 6;139(1):155-63
Pereira, D., et al. "Effects of flavonoids on alpha-glucosidase activity: potential targets for glucose homeostasis." Nutrition. 2011 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1161-7.
da Cunha, A., et al. "Hypoglycemic activity of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link." Phytomedicine. 2010 Jan;17(1):37-41.
Tzeng, Y., et al. "Kaempferitrin activates the insulin signaling pathway and stimulates secretion of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes." Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Apr 1;607(1-3):27-34.
Vishnu Prasad, C., et al. "Kaempferitrin inhibits GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes." Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Feb 27;380(1):39-43.
Volpato, G., et al. "Effect of Bauhinia forficata aqueous extract on the maternal-fetal outcome and oxidative stress biomarkers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 28;116(1):131-7.
Pinheiro, T. S., et al. “Comparative assessment of kaempferitrin from medicinal extracts of Bauhinia forficata J. Pharm. Biomed Anal. 2006 May; 41(2):431-6.
Cazarolli, L., et al. "Follow-up studies on glycosylated flavonoids and their complexes with vanadium: their anti-hyperglycemic potential role in diabetes." Chem Biol Interact. 2006 Nov 7;163(3):177-91.
Estrada, O., et al. “Evaluation of flavonoids from Bauhinia megalandra leaves as inhibitors of glucose-6- phosphatase system.” Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(10): 859-63.
Vasconcelos, F., et al. “Insulin-like effects of Bauhinia forficata aqueous extract upon Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenoming.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 385-92.
Jorge, A. P., et al. “Insulinomimetic effects of kaempferitrin on glycaemia and on 14C-glucose uptake in rat soleus muscle.” Chem. Biol. Interact. 2004 Oct; 149(2-3): 89-96
Fuentes, O., et al. “Hypoglycemic activity of Bauhinia candicans in diabetic induced rabbits.” Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep; 75(6): 527-32.
Pepato, M. T., et al. “Evaluation of toxicity after one-months treatment with Bauhinia forficata decoction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2004 Jun 8; 4: 7.
de Sousa, E., et al. “Hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant potential of kaempferol-3,7-O-(alpha)-dirhamnoside from Bauhinia forficata leaves.” J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67(5): 829-32.
Lino, S., et al. “Antidiabetic activity of Bauhinia forficata extracts in alloxan-diabetic rats.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 27(1): 125-7.
Pepato, M. T., et al. “Anti-diabetic activity of Bauhinia forficata decoction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002 July; 81(2): 191–97.
Silva, F. R., et al. “Acute effect of Bauhinia forficata on serum glucose levels in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 83(1–2): 33–7.
Lemus, I., et al. “Hypoglycemic activity of four plants used in Chilean popular medicine.” Phytother. Res. 1999; 13(2):91–4.
Miyake, E. T., et al. “Caracterizacao farmacognostica de pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia fortificata)." Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 1986; 1(1): 56–68.
Almeida, R., et al. “Levantamento da flora medicinal de uso no tratamento da diabete e alguns resultados experimentais.” VIII Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil, Manaus-AM, Brazil. September 4–6, 1984, 23.
Costa, O. A. “Estudo farmacoquimico da unha-de-vaca.” Rev. Flora Medicinal 1945; 9(4): 175–89.
Juliani, C. “Hypoglycemic action of bauintrato (Bauhinia forficata preparation) new clinical and experimental study.” J. Clin. 1941; 22: 17.
Juliane, C. “Acao hipoglicemiante de Bauhinia forficata. Novos estudos experimentails.” Rev. Sudam. Endocrin. Immol. Quimiot. 1931; 14: 326–34.
Juliane, C. “Acao hipoglicemiante da unha-de-vaca.” Rev. Med. Pharm. Chim. Phys. 1929; 2(1): 165–69.

Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
To date, close to 100 in vivo studies have demonstrated the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of bitter melon. This plant has shown the ability to enhance cells' uptake of glucose, to promote insulin release, and to potentiate the effect of insulin.
Ooi, C., et al. "Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15; 8:CD007845. Review.
Ahmad, Z., et al. "In vitro anti-diabetic activities and chemical analysis of polypeptide-k and oil isolated from seeds of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)." Molecules. 2012 Aug 10;17(8):9631-40.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Traditional medicinal herbs and food plants have the potential to inhibit key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in vitro and reduce postprandial blood glucose peaks in vivo." Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:285284.
Deng, R. "A review of the hypoglycemic effects of five commonly used herbal food supplements." Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric. 2012 Apr 1;4(1):50-60. Review.
Tsai, C., et al. "Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: a preliminary dietary supplementation trial." Nutr J. 2012 Jan 13;11:4.
Chaturvedi, P. "Antidiabetic potentials of Momordica charantia: multiple mechanisms behind the effects." J Med Food. 2012 Feb;15(2):101-7
Saha, S., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):974-83
Keller, A., et al. "Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro." Phytomedicine. 2011 Dec 15;19(1):32-7.
Akhtar, N., et al. "Pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical evaluation of extracts from different plant parts of indigenous origin for their hypoglycemic responses in rabbits." Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 Nov-Dec;68(6):919-25.
Blum, A., et al. "Momordica charantia extract, a herbal remedy for type 2 diabetes, contains a specific 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012 Jan;128(1-2):51-5.
Singh, J., et al. "Medicinal chemistry of the anti-diabetic effects of momordica charantia: active constituents and modes of actions." Open Med Chem J. 2011;5(Suppl 2):70-7.
Popovich, D., et al. "Momordica charantia seed extract reduces pre-adipocyte viability, affects lactate dehydrogenase release, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J Med Food. 2011 Mar;14(3):201-8.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Hafizur, R., et al. "Modulation of pancreatic B-cells in neonatally streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia fruit pulp." Nat Prod Res. 2011 Feb;25(4):353-67.
Wang, Z., et al. "Bioactives from bitter melon enhance insulin signaling and modulate acyl carnitine content in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet-fed mice." J Nutr Biochem. 2011 Nov;22(11):1064-73.
Fuangchan, A., et al. "Hypoglycemic effect of bitter melon compared with metformin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134(2):422-8.
Xie, W., et al. "Diabetes is an inflammatory disease: evidence from traditional Chinese medicines." Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Apr;13(4):289-301.
Bhujbal, S., et al. "A novel herbal formulation in the management of diabetes. Int J Pharm Investig. 2011 Oct;1(4):222-6.
Abdollahi, M., et al. "Effects of Momordica charantia on pancreatic histopathological changes associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in neonatal rats." Histol Histopathol. 2011 Jan;26(1):13-21.
Gadang, V., et al. "Dietary bitter melon seed increases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? gene expression in adipose tissue, down-regulates the nuclear factor-?B expression, and alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome." J Med Food. 2011 Jan-Feb;14(1-2):86-93.
Malik, Z., et al. "Neuroprotective effect of Momordica charantia in global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion induced neuronal damage in diabetic mice." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):729-34.
Tripathi, U., et al. "Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats." Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2010 Aug;47(4):227-33.
Teoh, S., et al. "Histological changes in the kidneys of experimental diabetic rats fed with Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) extract." Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2010;51(1):91-5.
Babish, J., et al. "Antidiabetic screening of commercial botanical products in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and db/db mice." J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):535-47.
Xia, X., et al. "Targeting metabolic syndrome: candidate natural agents." J Diabetes. 2010 Dec;2(4):243-9.
Klomann, S., et al. "Antidiabetic effects of bitter gourd extracts in insulin-resistant db/db mice." Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec;104(11):1613-20.
Chaturvedi, P., et al. "Momordica charantia maintains normal glucose levels and lipid profiles and prevents oxidative stress in diabetic rats subjected to chronic sucrose load." J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):520-7.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Momordica charantia (bitter melon) inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Jun 29;10:34.
Leung, L. , et al. "Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review." Br. J. Nutr. 2009; 102(12): 1703-8.
Tripathi, U., et al. "The plant extracts of Momordica charantia and Trigonella foenum-graecum have anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus." Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009 Nov-Dec;2(5):290-6.
Yadav, M., et al. "Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats." Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010 Apr;160(8):2388-400.
Teoh, S., et al. "A histological study of the structural changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with or without Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)." Clin Ter. 2009 Jul-Aug; 160(4): 283-6.
Nahas, R., et al. "Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes." Can. Fam. Physician. 2009; 55(6): 591-6.
Shih, C., et al. "Momordica charantia extract on insulin resistance and the skeletal muscle GLUT4 protein in fructose-fed rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 May 4; 123(1) :82-90.
Inayat-ur-Rahman, m., et al. "Serum sialic acid changes in non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients following bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and rosiglitazone (Avandia) treatment." Phytomedicine. 2009 May; 16(5): 401-5.
Nivitabishekam, S., et al. "Pharmacodynamic interaction of Momordica charantia with rosiglitazone in rats." Chem. Biol. Interact. 2009 Feb; 177(3): 247-53.
Han, C."Hypoglycaemic activity of saponin fraction extracted from Momordica charantia in PEG/salt aqueous two-phase systems." Nat. Prod. Res. 2008; 22(13): 1112-9.
Cheng, H., et al. "A cell-based screening identifies compounds from the stem of Momordica charantia that overcome insulin resistance and activate AMP-activated protein kinase." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008 Aug; 56(16): 6835-43.
Shih, C., et al. "Effects of Momordica charantia on insulin resistance and visceral obesity in mice on high-fat diet." Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2008 Aug; 81(2): 134-43.
Tan, M., et al. "Antidiabetic activities of triterpenoids isolated from bitter melon associated with activation of the AMPK pathway." Chem. Biol. 2008; 15(3): 263-73.
Singh, N., et al. "Regeneration of beta cells in islets of Langerhans of pancreas of alloxan diabetic rats by acetone extract of Momordica charantia (Linn.) (bitter gourd) fruits." Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2007; 45(12): 1055-62.
Uebanso, T., et al. "Extracts of Momordica charantia suppress postprandial hyperglycemia in rats." J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo). 2007 Dec; 53(6): 482-8.
Kumar, G., et al. "Modulatory effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) on alterations in kidney heparan sulfate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 17; 115(2): 276-83.
Sridhar, M., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) improves insulin sensitivity by increasing skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in high-fat-fed rats." Br. J. Nutr. 2008; 99(4): 806-12.
Fernandes, N., et al. "An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2007 Sep 24; 7:29.
Huang, H., et al. "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) inhibits adipocyte hypertrophy and down regulates lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese rats." Br. J. Nutr. 2008; 99(2): 230-9.
Dans, A., et al. "The effect of Momordica charantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies." J. Clin. Epidemiol. 2007; 60(6): 554-9.
Xiang, L., et al. "The reparative effects of Momordica Charantia Linn. extract on HIT-T15 pancreatic beta-cells." Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007; 16 Suppl 1: 249-52.
Roffey, B. et al. "Water extracts from Momordica charantia increase glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipose cells." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May; 112(1): 77-84.
Oishi, Y., et al. "Inhibition of increases in blood glucose and serum neutral fat by Momordica charantia saponin fraction." Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2007; 71(3): 735-40
Omar, S., et al. "Hypoglycemic effect of the seeds of Momordica charantia." Fitoterapia. 2007; 78(1): 46-7.
Ojewole, J., et al. "Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) whole-plant aqueous extract in rats." Cardiovasc. J. S. Afr. 2006 Sep-Oct; 17(5): 227-32.
Omar, S., et al. "Hypoglycemic effect of the seeds of Momordica charantia." Fitoterapia. 2007; 78(1): 46-7.
Ojewole, J., et al. "Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) whole-plant aqueous extract in rats." Cardiovasc. J. S. Afr. 2006 Sep-Oct; 17(5): 227-32.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Effect of exogenous ATP on Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) induced inhibition of d-glucose, l-tyrosine and fluid transport across rat everted intestinal sacs in vitro." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 26;
Lans, C. "Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct 13; 2:45.
Chuang, C., et al. "Fractionation and identification of 9c, 11t, 13t-conjugated linolenic acid as an activator of PPARalpha in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)." J. Biomed. Sci. 2006 Nov; 13(6): 763-72.
Krawinkel, M., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): A dietary approach to hyperglycemia." Nutr. Rev. 2006; 64(7 Pt 1): 331-7.
Harinantenaina, L., et al. "Momordica charantia constituents and antidiabetic screening of the isolated major compounds." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 54(7): 1017-21.
Abd El Sattar, E., et al. "Some toxicological studies of Momordica charantia L. on albino rats in normal and alloxan diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov; 108(2): 236-42.
Yibchok-Anun. S., et al. "Slow acting protein extract from fruit pulp of Momordica charantia with insulin secretagogue and insulinomimetic activities." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Jun;29(6):1126-31.
Jung, M., et al. "Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants." Curr. Med. Chem. 2006; 13(10): 1203-18.
Kumar, G., et al. "Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on constituents of glycosaminoglycans in different tissues in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats." Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2006 Jun; 286(1-2) :53-8.
Reyes, B., et al. "Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 196-200.
Khan, B., et al. "Hypogylcemic activity of aqueous extract of some indigenous plants." Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 2005; 18(1): 62-4.
Zheng, Z.X., et al. “The hypoglycemic effects of crude polysaccharides extract from Momordica charantia in mice.” Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2005 May; 34(3): 361-3.
Reyes, B. A., et al. “Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Nov 16;
Sathishsekar, D., et al. “Beneficial effects of Momordica charantia seeds in the treatment of STZ-induced diabetes in experimental rats.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(6): 978-83.
Shetty, A. K., et al. “Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.” Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2005 Sep; 60(3): 109-12.
Kumar Shetty, A., et al. “Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) modulates activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2005; 49(8): 791-6.
Chaturvedi, P., et al. “Effect of Momordica charantia on lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance in diabetic rats.” Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(11): 954-6.
Vikrant, V., et al. “Treatment with extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana prevents hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in fructose fed rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 76(2): 139–43.
Miura, T., et al. “Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice.” J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2001; 47(5): 340–44.
Raza, H., et al. “Modulation of xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress in chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with Momordica charantia fruit extract.” J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 2000; 14(3): 131–39.
Ahmad, N., et al. “Effect of Momordica charantia (Karolla) extracts on fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels in NIDDM patients.” Bangladesh Med. Res. Counc. Bull. 1999; 25(1): 11–13.
Ahmed, I., et al. “Effects of Momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 1998; 40(3): 145–51.
Sarkar, S., et al. “Demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes.” Pharmacol. Res. 1996; 33(1): 1–4.
Ali, L., et al. “Studies on hypoglycemic effects of fruit pulp, seed and whole plant of Momordica charantia on normal and diabetic model rats.” Planta Med. 1993; 59(5): 408–12.
Akhtar, M. S. “Trial of Momordica charantia Linn (Karela) powder in patients with maturity-onset diabetes.” J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 1982; 32(4): 106–7.

Chanca Piedra (Phyllanthus niruri)
In human studies with chanca piedra, researchers reported that blood sugar levels were reduced significantly in diabetic subjects studied. Two other studies with rabbits and rats document the hypoglycemic effect of chanca piedra in diabetic animals. Yet another study documented chanca piedra with aldose reductase inhibition (ARI) properties. Some of the newer research suggests that chanca piedra's cellular protective actions might reduce some of the liver and kidney issues associated with diabetes.
Adeneye, A. "The leaf and seed aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus improves insulin resistance diabetes in experimental animal studies." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):705-11.
Patel, K., et al. "Effect of Atibalamula and Bhumyamalaki on thirty-three patients of diabetic neuropathy." Ayu. 2011 Jul;32(3):353-6.
Karuna, R., et al. "Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract against renal oxidative stress in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;43(4):414-8.
Okoli, C., et al. "Studies on the possible mechanisms of antidiabetic activity of extract of aerial parts of Phyllanthus niruri." Pharm Biol. 2011 Mar;49(3):248-55.
Tamil, I., et al. "In vitro study on alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Phyllanthus amarus." Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Oct;42(5):280-2.
Gunawan-Puteri, M., et al. "alpha-Amylase inhibitors from an Indonesian medicinal herb, Phyllanthus urinaria." J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Sep 23.
Latha, P., et al. "Protective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on alcohol and heated sunflower oil induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats." Toxicol Mech Methods. 2010 Oct;20(8):498-503.
Lin, S., et al. "Antioxidant, anti-semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, and anti-hypertensive activities of geraniin isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(7): 2485-92.
Modak, M., et al. "Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes." J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2007 May; 40(3): 163-73.
Amaechina, F., et al. "Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn (Euphorbiaceae)." Acta Pol. Pharm. 2007 Nov-Dec; 64(6): 547-52.
Adeneye, A. A., et al. "Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus in mice." Fitoterapia. 2006 Dec; 77(7-8): 511-4.
Ali, H., et al. "alpha-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct; 107(3): 449-55.
Raphael, K. R., et al. “Hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats and its relation with antioxidant potential.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2002; 40(8): 905-9.
Khanna, A. K., et al. "Lipid lowering activity of Phyllanthus niruri in hyperlipemic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 82(1): 19-22.
Srividya, N., et al. “Diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus amarus.Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1995; 33(11): 861–64.
Shimizu, M., et al. “Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. II. Active components of a Paraguayan crude drug, ‘paraparai mi,’ Phyllanthus niruri.Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1989; 37(9): 2531–32.
Umarani, D., et al. “Ethanol induced metabolic alterations and the effect of Phyllanthus niruri in their reversal.” Ancient Sci. Life 1985; 4(3): 174–80.
Ramakrishnan, P. N., et al. “Oral hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.) leaves.” Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 1982; 44(1): 10–12.

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)
Scientists tested the hypoglycemic effects of the individual glycoside chemicals in stevia and attributed the effect on glucose production to the glycosides steviol, isosteviol, and glucosilsteviol.
Shivanna, N., et al. "Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana." J Diabetes Complications. 2012 Nov 6.
Saravanan, R., et al. "Effect of Rebaudioside A, a diterpenoid on glucose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetic rats." J Physiol Biochem. 2012 Sep;68(3):421-31
Kujur, R., et al. "Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats." Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 Jul;2(4):258-63.
Misra, H., et al. "Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats." J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Apr;3(2):242-8.
Ozbayer, C., et al. "Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes." J Med Food. 2011 Oct;14(10):1215-22.
Dyrskog, S., et al. "The diterpene glycoside, rebaudioside A, does not improve glycemic control or affect blood pressure after eight weeks treatment in the Goto-Kakizaki rat." Rev Diabet Stud. 2005 Summer;2(2):84-91.
Chen, J., et al. "Stevioside counteracts the glyburide-induced desensitization of the pancreatic beta-cell function in mice: studies in vitro." Metabolism. 2006 Dec; 55(12): 1674-80.
Ferreira, E. B., et al. "Comparative effects of Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stevioside on glycaemia and hepatic gluconeogenesis." Planta Med. 2006 Jun; 72(8): 691-6.
Chang, J. C., et al. “Increase of insulin sensitivity by stevioside in fructose-rich chow-fed rats.” Horm. Metab. Res. 2005; 37(10): 610-6.
Chen, T. H., et al. “Mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of stevioside, a glycoside of Stevia rebaudiana.” Planta Med. 2005; 71(2): 108-13.
Dyrskog, S. E., et al. “Preventive effects of a soy-based diet supplemented with stevioside on the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.” Metabolism. 2005; 54(9): 1181-8
Abudula, R., et al. “Rebaudioside A potently stimulates insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets: studies on the dose-, glucose-, and calcium-dependency.” Metabolism. 2004; 53(10): 1378-81.
Lailerd, N., et al. “Effects of stevioside on glucose transport activity in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle.” Metabolism. 2004; 53(1): 101-7.
Gregersen, S., et al. “Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects.” Metabolism. 2004; 53(1):73-6.
Raskovic, A., et al. “Joint effect of commercial preparations of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and sodium monoketocholate on glycemia in mice.” Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2004 Apr-Jun; 29(2): 83-6.
Raskovic, A., et al. “Glucose concentration in the blood of intact and alloxan-treated mice after pretreatment with commercial preparations of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).” Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2004 Apr-Jun; 29(2):87
Gardana, C., et al. “Metabolism of stevioside and rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana extracts by human microflora.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003 Oct; 51(22): 6618-22.
Koyama, E., et al. “Absorption and metabolism of glycosidic sweeteners of stevia mixture and their aglycone, steviol, in rats and humans.” Food Chem.Toxicol. 2003; 41(6): 875-83.
Jeppesen, P. B., et al. “Stevioside acts directly on pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin: actions independent of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+-channel activity.” Metabolism. 2000; 49(2): 208–14.
Yamamoto, N. S., et al. “Effect of steviol and its structural analogues on glucose production and oxygen uptake in rat renal tubules.” Experientia. 1985; 41(1): 55–7.
Curi, R., et al. “Effect of Stevia rebaudiana on glucose tolerance in normal adult humans." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1986; 19(6): 771–74.
Suzuki, H., et al. “Influence of the oral administration of stevioside on the levels of blood glucose and liver glycogen in intact rats.” Nogyo Kagaku Zasshi 1977; 51(3): 45
Oviedo, C. A., et al. “Hypoglycemic action of Stevia rebaudiana.” Excerpta Medica. 1970; 209: 92.

Neem (Azadirachta indica)
Fourteen research studies published from 1996 to 2012 document the hypglycemic and anti-diabetic effect of neem. The data suggests that neem could be of benefit in Diabetes mellitus by controlling blood sugar or may also be helpful in preventing or delaying the onset of the disease. One recent study suggests that neem should not be used while pregnant.
Dallaqua, B., et al. "Treatment with Azadirachta indica in diabetic pregnant rats: negative effects on maternal outcome." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Oct 11;143(3):805-11.
Akhtar, N., et al. "Pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical evaluation of extracts from different plant parts of indigenous origin for their hypoglycemic responses in rabbits." Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 Nov-Dec;68(6):919-25.
Gutierrez, R., et al. "Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract of Azadirachta indica." Pharmacogn Mag. 2011 Jul;7(27):254-9.
Chandra, A., et al. "Effect of Indian herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant capacity and trace elements content in diabetic rats." J Med Food. 2008 Sep;11(3):506-12.
Waheed, A., et al. "Clinical investigation of hypoglycemic effect of seeds of Azadirachta-inidca in type-2 (NIDDM) diabetes mellitus." Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Oct;19(4):322-5.
Sritanaudomchai, H., et al. “Quinone reductase inducers in Azadirachta indica A. Juss flowers, and their mechanisms of action.” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2005 Jul-Sep; 6(3): 263-9.
Gholap, S, et al. “Hypoglycaemic effects of some plant extracts are possibly mediated through inhibition in corticosteroid concentration.” Pharmazie. 2004; 59(11): 876-8.
Gupta, S., et al. “Protective role of extracts of neem seeds in diabetes caused by streptozotocin in rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb; 90(2-3): 185-9.
Halim, E. M. “Lowering of blood sugar by water extract of Azadirachta indica and Abroma augusta in diabetes rats.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2003; 41(6): 636-40.
Halder, N., et al. “Lens aldose reductase inhibiting potential of some indigenous plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003 May; 86(1): 113-6.
Khosla, P, et al. “A study of hypoglycaemic effects of Azadirachta indica (Neem) in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits.” Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2000; 44(1): 69-74.
Chattopadhyay, R. R. “A comparative evaluation of some blood sugar lowering agents of plant origin.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(3): 367-72.
Chattopadhyay, R. R. “Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: part V.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(3): 373-6.
Chattopadhyay, R. R. “Possible mechanism of antihyperglycemic effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Part IV.” Gen. Pharmacol. 1996; 27(3): 431-4.

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