Mullaca (Physalis angulata) herb powder - Mullaca (Physalis angulata) herb powder - Mullaca (Physalis angulata) herb powder - Mullaca (Physalis angulata) herb powder - Mullaca (Physalis angulata) herb powder Mullaca Powder

Physalis angulata

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

Herbal practitioners in both South and North America today rely on mullaca for various bacterial and viral infections as well as a complementary therapy for cancer and leukemia.* For more information about mullaca (Physalis angulata), please refer to the Database File for Mullaca in the Tropical Plant Database. To see pictures of mullaca, click here. Check out the new Discussion Forums to see if anyone is talking about how they are using this natural rainforest remedy.

Traditional Uses:* for bacterial infections of all kinds; for cancer and leukemia; for mycoplasma and mycobacteria infections, for skin diseases (dermatitis, psoriasis, skin infections, rosaceae, scleroderma, etc.); for viral infections of all kinds

Suggested Use: This plant is best prepared as an infusion (tea): Use one teaspoon of powder for each cup of water. Pour boiling water over herb in cup and allow to steep 10 minutes. Strain tea (or allow settled powder to remain in the bottom of cup) and drink warm. It is traditionally taken in ½ to 1 cup dosages, 2-3 times daily. For more complete instructions on preparing herbal infusions see the Methods for Preparing Herbal Remedies Page.

  • One animal study indicates this plant may lower blood pressure and one test tube study demonstrated a blood anticoagulant activity. This plant is contraindicated for people with hemophilia, and those with low blood pressure should monitor their blood pressure accordingly.
Drug Interactions: None reported.

Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on mullaca be found at PubMed/Medline. A partial listing of the third-party published research on mullaca is shown below:

Antimicrobial Actions (antiviral, antibacterial, antimycoplasmal, antimycobacterial):
Osho, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010;7(4):303-6.
Silva, M. T., et al. “Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Nov; 100(7): 779-82.
Hwang, J. K., et al. “Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.” Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep; 75(6): 596-8.
Pietro, R. C., et al. “In vitro antimycobacterial activities of Physalis angulata L.” Phytomedicine 2000; 7(4): 335–38.
Januario, A. H., et al. “Antimycobacterial physalins from Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae).” Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(5): 445-48.
Hussain, H., et al. “Plants in Kano ethnomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacol. 1991; 29(1): 51–56.
Otake, T., et al. “Screening of Indonesian plant extracts for anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) Activity.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(1): 6–10.
Kurokawa, M., et al. “Antiviral traditional medicines against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), polio virus, and measles virus in vitro and their therapeutic efficacies for HSV-1 infection in mice." Antiviral Res. 1993; 22(2/3): 175–88.
Kusumoto, I. T., et al. “Screening of some Indonesian medicinal plants for inhibitory effects on HIV-1 protease.” Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1992; 46(2): 190-93.
Ogunlana, E. O., et al. “Investigations into the antibacterial activities of local plants.” Planta Med. 1975; 27: 354.

Cytotoxic, Anticancerous & Antileukemic Actions:
Wu, S., et al. "Physalin F induces cell apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells by targeting NF-kappaB and generating reactive oxygen species." PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40727.
Jin, Z., et al. "Physangulidines A, B, and C: three new antiproliferative withanolides from Physalis angulata L." Org Lett. 2012 Mar 2;14(5):1230-3.
Hsu, C., et al. "Physalin B from Physalis angulata triggers the NOXA-related apoptosis pathway of human melanoma A375 cells." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Mar;50(3-4):619-24.
Hseu, Y., et al. "Inhibitory effects of Physalis angulata on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun 1;135(3):762-71.
Lee, H., et al. "Oxidative stress involvement in Physalis angulata-induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells." Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Mar;47(3):561-70.
Lee, S., et al. "Withangulatin I, a new cytotoxic withanolide from Physalis angulata." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Feb;56(2):234-6.
Damu, A., et al. "Isolation, structures, and structure - cytotoxic activity relationships of withanolides and physalins from Physalis angulata." J Nat Prod. 2007 Jul;70(7):1146-52.
He, Q., et al. "Cytotoxic withanolides from Physalis angulata L." Chem Biodivers. 2007 Mar;4(3):443-9.
Ausseil, F., et al. "High-throughput bioluminescence screening of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors from chemical and natural sources." J. Biomol. Screen. 2006 Dec 14;
Kuo, P. C., et al. "Physanolide A, a novel skeleton steroid, and other cytotoxic principles from Physalis angulata." Org. Lett. 2006 Jul; 8(14): 2953-6.
Ichikawa, H., et al. "Withanolides potentiate apoptosis, inhibit invasion, and abolish osteoclastogenesis through suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression." Mol. Cancer Ther. 2006; 5(6): 1434-45.
Magalhaes, H. I., et al. "In-vitro and in-vivo antitumour activity of physalins B and D from Physalis angulata." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006; 58(2): 235-41.
Jacobo-Herrera, N. J., et al. "Physalins from Witheringia solanacea as modulators of the NF-kappaB cascade." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(3): 328-31.
Magalhaes, H. I., et al. "In-vitro and in-vivo antitumour activity of physalins B and D from Physalis angulata." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Feb; 58(2): 235-41.
Hsieh, W. T., et al. “Physalis angulata induced G2/M phase arrest in human breast cancer cells.” Food Chem Toxicol. 2006; 44(7): 974-83.
Lee, C. C., et al. "Cytotoxicity of plants from Malaysia and Thailand used traditionally to treat cancer." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep; 100(3): 237-43.
Wu, S. J., et al. “Antihepatoma activity of Physalis angulata and P. peruviana extracts and their effects on apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells.” Life Sci. 2004 Mar; 74(16): 2061-73.
Leyon, P. V., et al. "Effect of Withania somnifera on B16F-10 melanoma induced metastasis in mice." Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(2): 118-22.
Kawai, M., et al. “Cytotoxic activity of physalins and related compounds against HeLa cells.” Pharmazie 2002; 57(5): 348–50.
Ismail, N., et al. “A novel cytotoxic flavonoid glycoside from Physalis angulata.” Fitoterapia. 2001 Aug. 72(6):676–79.
Lee, Y. C., et al. “Integrity of intermediate filaments is associated with the development of acquired thermotolerance in 9L rat brain tumor cells.” J. Cell. Biochem. 1995; 57(1): 150–62.
Perng, M. D., et al. “Induction of aggregation and augmentation of protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of purified vimentin intermediate filaments by withangulatin A.” Mol. Pharmacol. 1994; 46(4): 612–17.
Chiang, H., et al. “Antitumor agent, physalin F from Physalis angulata L.” Anticancer Res. 1992; 12(3): 837–43.
Chiang, H., et al. “Inhibitory effects of physalin B and physalin F on various human leukemia cells in vitro.” Anticancer Res. 1992; 12(4): 1155–62.
Kusumoto, I., et al. “Inhibitory effect of Indonesian plant extracts on reverse transcriptase of an RNA tumour virus (I).” Phytother. Res. 1992; 6(5): 241–44.
Lee, W. C., et al. “Induction of heat-shock response and alterations of protein phosphorylation by a novel topoisomerase II inhibitor, withangulatin A, in 9L rat brain tumor cells.” Cell Physiol. 1991; 149(1): 66-67.
Chen, C. M., et al. “Withangulatin A, a new withanolide from Physalis angulata.” Heterocycles. 1990; 31(7):1371–75.
Basey, K., et al. “Phygrine, an alkaloid from Physalis species.” Phytochemistry. 1992; 31(12): 4173–76.
Juang, J. K., et al. “A new compound, withangulatin A, promotes type II DNA topoisomerasemediated DNA damage.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1989; 159(3): 1128–34.
Anon. “Biological assay of antitumor agents from natural products.” Abstr.: Seminar on the Development of Drugs from Medicinal Plants Organized by the Department of Medical Science Department at Thai Farmer Bank, Bangkok, Thailand 1982; 129.
Antoun, M. D., et al. “Potential antitumor agents. XVII. physalin B and 25,26-epidihydrophysalin C from Witheringia coccoloboides.” J. Nat. Prod. 1981; 44(5): 579–85.

Immunomodulatory Actions:
Castro, D., et al. "Physalin B inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the gut of Rhodnius prolixus by affecting the immune system and microbiota." J Insect Physiol. 2012 Dec;58(12):1620-5.
Sun, L., et al. "Amelioration of systemic lupus erythematosus by Withangulatin A in MRL/lpr mice." J Cell Biochem. 2011 Sep;112(9):2376-82.
Brustolim, D., et al. "Activity of physalin F in a collagen-induced arthritis model." J Nat Prod. 2010 Aug 27;73(8):1323-6.
Yu, Y., et al. "Investigation of the immunosuppressive activity of Physalin H on T lymphocytes." Int Immunopharmacol. 2010 Mar;10(3):290-7.
Castro, D., et al. "Physalin B inhibits Rhodnius prolixus hemocyte phagocytosis and microaggregation by the activation of endogenous PAF-acetyl hydrolase activities." J Insect Physiol. 2009 Jun;55(6):532-7.
Castro, D., et al. "Immune depression in Rhodnius prolixus by seco-steroids, physalins." J Insect Physiol. 2008 Mar;54(3):555-62.
Soares, M. B., et al. “Physalins B, F and G, seco-steroids purified from Physalis angulata L., inhibit lymphocyte function and allogeneic transplant rejection.” Int. Immunopharmacol. 2006; 6(3): 408-14.
Garcia, E. S., et all. “Trypanosoma rangeli: effects of physalin B on the immune reactions of the infected larvae of Rhodnius prolixus.” Exp. Parasitol. 2006; 112(1): 37-43.
Soares, M. B., et al. “Inhibition of macrophage activation and lipopolysaccaride-induced death by seco-steroids purified from Physalis angulata L.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2003; 459(1): 107-12.
Lin, Y. S., et al. “Immunomodulatory activity of various fractions derived from Physalis angulata L. extract.” Amer. J. Chinese Med. 1992; 20(3/4): 233–43.
Shingu, K., et al. “Three new withanolides, physagulins E, F and G from Physalis angulata L." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1992; 40(9): 2448–51.
Sakhibov, A. D., et al. “Immunosuppressive properties of vitasteroids.” Dokl. Akad. Nauk. Uzb. SSR. 1990; 1:43–45.

Pain-relieving, Antispasmodic, & Anti-inflammatory Actions:
Brustolim, D., et al. "Activity of physalin F in a collagen-induced arthritis model." J Nat Prod. 2010 Aug 27;73(8):1323-6.
Pinto, N., et al. "Topical anti-inflammatory potential of Physalin E from Physalis angulata on experimental dermatitis in mice." Phytomedicine. 2010 Aug;17(10):740-3.
Sun, L., et al. "Anti-inflammatory function of Withangulatin A by targeted inhibiting COX-2 expression via MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways." J Cell Biochem. 2010 Feb 15;109(3):532-41.
Bastos, G., et al. "Physalis angulata extract exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rats by inhibiting different pathways." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):246-51.
Bastos, G. N., et al. “Antinociceptive effect of the aqueous extract obtained from roots of Physalis angulata L. on mice.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan; 103(2): 241-5.
Vieira, A.T., et al. “Mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of the natural secosteroids physalins in a model of intestinal ischaemia and reperfusion injury.” Br. J. Pharmacol. 2005 Sep; 146(2): 244-51.
Choi, E. M., et al. “Investigations of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Piper cubeba, Physalis angulata and Rosa hybrida.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov; 89(1): 171-5.
Cox, P. A. “Pharmacological activity of the Samoan ethnopharmacopoeia.” Econ. Bot. 1989; 43(4): 487–97.

Neuroprotective & Neuro-repairing Actions:
Tohda, C., et al. "Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network." Neurosignals. 2005; 14(1-2): 34-45.
Kuboyama, T., et al. "Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A." Br. J. Pharmacol. 2005 Apr; 144(7): 961-71.

Anti-cholesterol & Antioxidant Actions:
Choi, E.M., et al. “Effect of some medicinal plants on plasma antioxidant system and lipid levels in rats.” Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(5): 382-6.

Anticoagulant Actions:
Kone-Bamba, D., et al. “Hemostatic activity of 216 plants used in traditional medicine in the Ivory Coast.” Plant Med. Phytother. 1987; 21(2): 122–30.

Antiparasitic & Antimalarial Actions:
Castro, D., et al. "Physalin B inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the gut of Rhodnius prolixus by affecting the immune system and microbiota." J Insect Physiol. 2012 Dec;58(12):1620-5.
Sa, M., et al. "Antimalarial activity of physalins B, D, F, and G." J Nat Prod. 2011 Oct 28;74(10):2269-72.
Ruiz, L., et al. "Plants used by native Amazonian groups from the Nanay River (Peru) for the treatment of malaria." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):917-21
Lusakibanza, M., et al. "In vitro and in vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic activity of five plants used in congolese traditional medicine." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jun 16;129(3):398-402.
Guimaraes, E., et al. "Activity of physalins purified from Physalis angulata in in vitro and in vivo models of cutaneous leishmaniasis." J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Jul;64(1):84-7.
Vieira, n., et al. "Trypanocidal activity of a new pterocarpan and other secondary metabolites of plants from Northeastern Brazil flora." Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Feb 15;16(4):1676-82.
Abe, F., et al. "Trypanocidal constituents in plants 6. 1) Minor withanolides from the aerial parts of Physalis angulata." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 54(8): 1226-8.
Choudhary, M. I., et al. "Antileishmanial physalins from Physalis minima." Chem. Biodivers. 2005 Sep; 2(9):1164-73.
Choudhary, M. I., et al. "Biotransformation of physalin H and leishmanicidal activity of its transformed products." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 54(7): 927-30.
Garcia, E. S., et al. "Trypanosoma rangeli: effects of physalin B on the immune reactions of the infected larvae of Rhodnius prolixus." Exp. Parasitol. 2006; 112(1): 37-43.
Nagafuji, S., et al. “Trypanocidal constituents in plants 4. Withanolides from the aerial parts of Physalis angulata.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 27(2): 193-7.
Ankrah, N. A., et al. “Evaluation of efficacy and safety of a herbal medicine used for the treatment of malaria.” Phytother Res. 2003; 17(6): 697-701.
dos Santos, J. A., et al. “Molluscicidal activity of Physalis angulata L. extracts and fractions on Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835) under laboratory conditions.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2003 Apr; 98(3): 425-8.

Toxicity Studies:
Alves dos Santos, R., et al. "Genotoxic effect of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) extract on human lymphocytes treated in vitro." Biocell. 2008 Aug;32(2):195-200.

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Last updated 12-18-2012